Z-DNA

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Movie Depicting ADAR1 binding to Z-DNA

Comparison of the three helices and helical parameters of DNA

Sources[7]

A-DNA

B-DNA

Z-DNA

Parameter A-DNA B-DNA Z-DNA
Helix sense right-handed right-handed left-handed
Residues per turn 11 10.5 12
Axial rise [Å] 2.55 3.4 3.7
Helix pitch(°) 28 34 45
Base pair tilt(°) 20 −6 7
Rotation per residue (°) 33 36-30
Diameter of helix [Å] 23 20 18
Glycosidic bond configuration
dA,dT,dC
dG

anti
anti

anti
anti

anti
syn
Sugar pucker
dA,dT,dC
dG

C3'-endo
C3'-endo

C2'-endo
C2'-endo

C2'-endo
C3'-endo
Intrastrand phosphate-phosphate distance [Å]
dA,dT,dC
dG

5.9
5.9

7.0
7.0

7.0
5.9
Sources:[8][9][10]

3D structures of Z-DNA

Updated on 25-February-2015

1woe, 3qba – ZDNA hexamer CGCGCG
1qbj – ZDNA hexamer CGCGCG + hADAR1 Zα domain - human
2heo - ZDNA hexamer CGCGCG + Z-DNA-binding protein Zα domain – mouse
2eyi - ZDNA hexamer CGCGCG + Z-DNA-binding protein Zβ domain
1j75 - ZDNA hexamer CGCGCG + DLM-1 Zα domain

Additional Resources

For additional information, see: Nucleic Acids

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Rich A, Zhang S. Timeline: Z-DNA: the long road to biological function. Nat Rev Genet. 2003 Jul;4(7):566-72. PMID:12838348 doi:10.1038/nrg1115
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Wang G, Vasquez KM. Z-DNA, an active element in the genome. Front Biosci. 2007 May 1;12:4424-38. PMID:17485386
  3. Ha SC, Lowenhaupt K, Rich A, Kim YG, Kim KK. Crystal structure of a junction between B-DNA and Z-DNA reveals two extruded bases. Nature. 2005 Oct 20;437(7062):1183-6. PMID:16237447 doi:10.1038/nature04088
  4. Schwartz T, Rould MA, Lowenhaupt K, Herbert A, Rich A. Crystal structure of the Zalpha domain of the human editing enzyme ADAR1 bound to left-handed Z-DNA. Science. 1999 Jun 11;284(5421):1841-5. PMID:10364558
  5. Kim YG, Lowenhaupt K, Oh DB, Kim KK, Rich A. Evidence that vaccinia virulence factor E3L binds to Z-DNA in vivo: Implications for development of a therapy for poxvirus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Feb 10;101(6):1514-8. Epub 2004 Feb 2. PMID:14757814 doi:10.1073/pnas.0308260100
  6. Drozdzal P, Gilski M, Kierzek R, Lomozik L, Jaskolski M. High-resolution crystal structure of Z-DNA in complex with Cr cations. J Biol Inorg Chem. 2015 Feb 17. PMID:25687556 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00775-015-1247-5
  7. http://203.129.231.23/indira/nacc/
  8. Rich A, Nordheim A, Wang AH. The chemistry and biology of left-handed Z-DNA. Annu Rev Biochem. 1984;53:791-846. PMID:6383204 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.bi.53.070184.004043
  9. Wang AH, Quigley GJ, Kolpak FJ, Crawford JL, van Boom JH, van der Marel G, Rich A. Molecular structure of a left-handed double helical DNA fragment at atomic resolution. Nature. 1979 Dec 13;282(5740):680-6. PMID:514347
  10. Sinden, Richard R (1994-01-15). DNA structure and function (1st ed.). Academic Press. pp. 398. ISBN 0-12-645750-6.

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