Complex of human carbonic anhydrase II with N-[2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl]-4-sulfamoylbenzamide
[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.    
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. 
Publication Abstract from PubMed
A series of arylsulfonamides has been synthesized and investigated for the inhibition of some selected human carbonic anhydrase isoforms. The studied compounds showed significant inhibitory effects in the nanomolar range toward druggable isoforms (hCA VII, hCA IX, and hCA XIV) (K(i) values from 4.8 to 61.7 nM), whereas they generally exhibited significant selectivity over hCA I and hCA II, that are ubiquitous and considered off-target isoforms. On the basis of biochemical data, we herein discussed structure-affinity relationships for this series of arylsulfonamides, suggesting a key role for alkoxy substituents in CA inhibition. Furthermore, X-ray crystal structures of complexes of two active inhibitors (I and 2a) with hCA II allowed us to elucidate the main interactions between the inhibitor and specific amino acid residues within the catalytic site.
Synthesis, Structure-Activity Relationship Studies, and X-ray Crystallographic Analysis of Arylsulfonamides as Potent Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors.,Gitto R, Damiano FM, Mader P, De Luca L, Ferro S, Supuran CT, Vullo D, Brynda J, Rezacova P, Chimirri A J Med Chem. 2012 Apr 6. PMID:22443141
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.