Crystal structure of human carbonic anhydrase II in complex with the 4-sulfamido-benzenesulfonamide inhibitor
[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.    
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. 
Publication Abstract from PubMed
A series of compounds incorporating both sulfonamide and sulfamide as zinc-binding groups (ZBGs) are reported as inhibitors of the metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 188.8.131.52). Crystallographic studies on the complex of hCA II with the lead compound of this series, namely, 4-sulfamido-benzenesulfonamide, revealed the binding of two molecules in the enzyme active site cavity, the first one canonically coordinated to the zinc ion by means of the sulfonamide group and the second one located at the entrance of the cavity. This observation led to the design of elongated molecules incorporating these two ZBGs, separated by a linker of proper length, to allow the simultaneous binding to these different sites. The "long" inhibitors indeed showed around 10 times better enzyme inhibitory properties as compared to the shorter molecules against four physiologically relevant human (h) isoforms, hCA I, II, IX, and XII.
Development of Potent Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors Incorporating Both Sulfonamide and Sulfamide Groups.,D'Ambrosio K, Smaine FZ, Carta F, De Simone G, Winum JY, Supuran CT J Med Chem. 2012 Jul 20. PMID:22775345
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.