Structure of Human Carbonic Anhydrase II complexed with 5,6-DIHYDRO-BENZO[H]CINNOLIN-3-YLAMINE
[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.    
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. 
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Aromatic amides comprising branched aliphatic carboxylic acids and 4-aminobenzenesulfonamide were evaluated for their inhibition of carbonic anhydrase (CA) isoforms. Of the most anticonvulsant-active compounds (2, 4, 13, 16, and 17), only 13, 16, and 17 were potent inhibitors of CAs VII and XIV. Compounds 9, 14, and 19 inhibited CA II, while 10 and 12 inhibited all isoforms. Structural studies suggest that differences in the active sites' hydrophobicity modulate the affinity of the inhibitors.
Anticonvulsant 4-aminobenzenesulfonamide derivatives with branched-alkylamide moieties: X-ray crystallography and inhibition studies of human carbonic anhydrase isoforms I, II, VII, and XIV.,Hen N, Bialer M, Yagen B, Maresca A, Aggarwal M, Robbins AH, McKenna R, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT J Med Chem. 2011 Jun 9;54(11):3977-81. Epub 2011 May 9. PMID:21506569
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