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|3mrj, resolution 1.87Å ()|
|Gene:||HLA, HLA-A, HLAA (Homo sapiens), B2M, BETA-2 MICROGLUBULIN, CDABP0092, HDCMA22P (Homo sapiens)|
|Related:||3mr9, 3mrb, 3mrc, 3mrd, 3mre, 3mrf, 3mrg, 3mrh, 3mri, 3mrk, 3mrl, 3mrm, 3mrn, 3mro, 3mrp, 3mrq, 3mrr, 3gsn, 3gso, 3gsq, 3gsr, 3gsu, 3gsv, 3gsw, 3gsx|
Crystal Structure of MHC class I HLA-A2 molecule complexed with HCV NS3-1073-1081 nonapeptide V5M variant
[B2MG_HUMAN] Defects in B2M are the cause of hypercatabolic hypoproteinemia (HYCATHYP) [MIM:241600]. Affected individuals show marked reduction in serum concentrations of immunoglobulin and albumin, probably due to rapid degradation. Note=Beta-2-microglobulin may adopt the fibrillar configuration of amyloid in certain pathologic states. The capacity to assemble into amyloid fibrils is concentration dependent. Persistently high beta(2)-microglobulin serum levels lead to amyloidosis in patients on long-term hemodialysis.
[1A02_HUMAN] Involved in the presentation of foreign antigens to the immune system. [POLG_HCVJ1] Core protein packages viral RNA to form a viral nucleocapsid, and promotes virion budding. Modulates viral translation initiation by interacting with HCV IRES and 40S ribosomal subunit. Also regulates many host cellular functions such as signaling pathways and apoptosis. Prevents the establishment of cellular antiviral state by blocking the interferon-alpha/beta (IFN-alpha/beta) and IFN-gamma signaling pathways and by inducing human STAT1 degradation. Thought to play a role in virus-mediated cell transformation leading to hepatocellular carcinomas. Interacts with, and activates STAT3 leading to cellular transformation. May repress the promoter of p53, and sequester CREB3 and SP110 isoform 3/Sp110b in the cytoplasm. Also represses cell cycle negative regulating factor CDKN1A, thereby interrupting an important check point of normal cell cycle regulation. Targets transcription factors involved in the regulation of inflammatory responses and in the immune response: suppresses NK-kappaB activation, and activates AP-1. Could mediate apoptotic pathways through association with TNF-type receptors TNFRSF1A and LTBR, although its effect on death receptor-induced apoptosis remains controversial. Enhances TRAIL mediated apoptosis, suggesting that it might play a role in immune-mediated liver cell injury. Seric core protein is able to bind C1QR1 at the T-cell surface, resulting in down-regulation of T-lymphocytes proliferation. May transactivate human MYC, Rous sarcoma virus LTR, and SV40 promoters. May suppress the human FOS and HIV-1 LTR activity. Alters lipid metabolism by interacting with hepatocellular proteins involved in lipid accumulation and storage. Core protein induces up-regulation of FAS promoter activity, and thereby probably contributes to the increased triglyceride accumulation in hepatocytes (steatosis) (By similarity). E1 and E2 glycoproteins form a heterodimer that is involved in virus attachment to the host cell, virion internalization through clathrin-dependent endocytosis and fusion with host membrane. E1/E2 heterodimer binds to human LDLR, CD81 and SCARB1/SR-BI receptors, but this binding is not sufficient for infection, some additional liver specific cofactors may be needed. The fusion function may possibly be carried by E1. E2 inhibits human EIF2AK2/PKR activation, preventing the establishment of an antiviral state. E2 is a viral ligand for CD209/DC-SIGN and CLEC4M/DC-SIGNR, which are respectively found on dendritic cells (DCs), and on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and macrophage-like cells of lymph node sinuses. These interactions allow capture of circulating HCV particles by these cells and subsequent transmission to permissive cells. DCs act as sentinels in various tissues where they entrap pathogens and convey them to local lymphoid tissue or lymph node for establishment of immunity. Capture of circulating HCV particles by these SIGN+ cells may facilitate virus infection of proximal hepatocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations and may be essential for the establishment of persistent infection (By similarity). P7 seems to be a heptameric ion channel protein (viroporin) and is inhibited by the antiviral drug amantadine. Also inhibited by long-alkyl-chain iminosugar derivatives. Essential for infectivity (By similarity). Protease NS2-3 is a cysteine protease responsible for the autocatalytic cleavage of NS2-NS3. Seems to undergo self-inactivation following maturation (By similarity). NS3 displays three enzymatic activities: serine protease, NTPase and RNA helicase. NS3 serine protease, in association with NS4A, is responsible for the cleavages of NS3-NS4A, NS4A-NS4B, NS4B-NS5A and NS5A-NS5B. NS3/NS4A complex also prevents phosphorylation of human IRF3, thus preventing the establishment of dsRNA induced antiviral state. NS3 RNA helicase binds to RNA and unwinds dsRNA in the 3' to 5' direction, and likely RNA stable secondary structure in the template strand. Cleaves and inhibits the host antiviral protein MAVS (By similarity). NS4B induces a specific membrane alteration that serves as a scaffold for the virus replication complex. This membrane alteration gives rise to the so-called ER-derived membranous web that contains the replication complex (By similarity). NS5A is a component of the replication complex involved in RNA-binding. Its interaction with Human VAPB may target the viral replication complex to vesicles. Down-regulates viral IRES translation initiation. Mediates interferon resistance, presumably by interacting with and inhibiting human EIF2AK2/PKR. Seems to inhibit apoptosis by interacting with BIN1 and FKBP8. The hyperphosphorylated form of NS5A is an inhibitor of viral replication (By similarity). NS5B is a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that plays an essential role in the virus replication (By similarity). [B2MG_HUMAN] Component of the class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Involved in the presentation of peptide antigens to the immune system.
About this Structure
- ↑ Wani MA, Haynes LD, Kim J, Bronson CL, Chaudhury C, Mohanty S, Waldmann TA, Robinson JM, Anderson CL. Familial hypercatabolic hypoproteinemia caused by deficiency of the neonatal Fc receptor, FcRn, due to a mutant beta2-microglobulin gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Mar 28;103(13):5084-9. Epub 2006 Mar 20. PMID:16549777 doi:10.1073/pnas.0600548103
- ↑ Gorevic PD, Munoz PC, Casey TT, DiRaimondo CR, Stone WJ, Prelli FC, Rodrigues MM, Poulik MD, Frangione B. Polymerization of intact beta 2-microglobulin in tissue causes amyloidosis in patients on chronic hemodialysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Oct;83(20):7908-12. PMID:3532124
- ↑ Argiles A, Derancourt J, Jauregui-Adell J, Mion C, Demaille JG. Biochemical characterization of serum and urinary beta 2 microglobulin in end-stage renal disease patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1992;7(11):1106-10. PMID:1336137
- ↑ Momoi T, Suzuki M, Titani K, Hisanaga S, Ogawa H, Saito A. Amino acid sequence of a modified beta 2-microglobulin in renal failure patient urine and long-term dialysis patient blood. Clin Chim Acta. 1995 May 15;236(2):135-44. PMID:7554280
- ↑ Cunningham BA, Wang JL, Berggard I, Peterson PA. The complete amino acid sequence of beta 2-microglobulin. Biochemistry. 1973 Nov 20;12(24):4811-22. PMID:4586824
- ↑ Haag-Weber M, Mai B, Horl WH. Isolation of a granulocyte inhibitory protein from uraemic patients with homology of beta 2-microglobulin. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1994;9(4):382-8. PMID:8084451
- ↑ Trinh CH, Smith DP, Kalverda AP, Phillips SE, Radford SE. Crystal structure of monomeric human beta-2-microglobulin reveals clues to its amyloidogenic properties. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Jul 23;99(15):9771-6. Epub 2002 Jul 15. PMID:12119416 doi:10.1073/pnas.152337399
- ↑ Stewart-Jones GB, McMichael AJ, Bell JI, Stuart DI, Jones EY. A structural basis for immunodominant human T cell receptor recognition. Nat Immunol. 2003 Jul;4(7):657-63. Epub 2003 Jun 8. PMID:12796775 doi:10.1038/ni942
- ↑ Kihara M, Chatani E, Iwata K, Yamamoto K, Matsuura T, Nakagawa A, Naiki H, Goto Y. Conformation of amyloid fibrils of beta2-microglobulin probed by tryptophan mutagenesis. J Biol Chem. 2006 Oct 13;281(41):31061-9. Epub 2006 Aug 10. PMID:16901902 doi:10.1074/jbc.M605358200
- ↑ Eakin CM, Berman AJ, Miranker AD. A native to amyloidogenic transition regulated by a backbone trigger. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2006 Mar;13(3):202-8. Epub 2006 Feb 19. PMID:16491088 doi:10.1038/nsmb1068
- ↑ Iwata K, Matsuura T, Sakurai K, Nakagawa A, Goto Y. High-resolution crystal structure of beta2-microglobulin formed at pH 7.0. J Biochem. 2007 Sep;142(3):413-9. Epub 2007 Jul 23. PMID:17646174 doi:10.1093/jb/mvm148
- ↑ Ricagno S, Colombo M, de Rosa M, Sangiovanni E, Giorgetti S, Raimondi S, Bellotti V, Bolognesi M. DE loop mutations affect beta2-microglobulin stability and amyloid aggregation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008 Dec 5;377(1):146-50. Epub 2008 Oct 1. PMID:18835253 doi:S0006-291X(08)01866-4
- ↑ Esposito G, Ricagno S, Corazza A, Rennella E, Gumral D, Mimmi MC, Betto E, Pucillo CE, Fogolari F, Viglino P, Raimondi S, Giorgetti S, Bolognesi B, Merlini G, Stoppini M, Bolognesi M, Bellotti V. The controlling roles of Trp60 and Trp95 in beta2-microglobulin function, folding and amyloid aggregation properties. J Mol Biol. 2008 May 9;378(4):887-97. Epub 2008 Mar 8. PMID:18395224 doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2008.03.002
- ↑ Ricagno S, Raimondi S, Giorgetti S, Bellotti V, Bolognesi M. Human beta-2 microglobulin W60V mutant structure: Implications for stability and amyloid aggregation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009 Mar 13;380(3):543-7. Epub 2009 Jan 25. PMID:19284997 doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.01.116