Human carbonic anhydsase II in complex with an aryl sulfonamide inhibitor
[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.    
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. 
Publication Abstract from PubMed
We investigated a series of coumarinyl-substituted aromatic sulfonamides as inhibitors of four carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 22.214.171.124) isoforms with medical applications, the cytosolic hCA I, and II, and the transmembrane, tumor-associated hCA IX and XII. Compounds incorporating 7-methoxy-coumarin-4-yl-acetamide-tails and benzenesulfonamide and benzene-1,3-disulfonamide scaffolds showed medium potency inhibition of hCA I (KIs of 73-131 nM), effective hCA II inhibition (KIs of 9.1-36 nM) and less effective hCA IX and XII inhibition (KIs of 55-128 nM). Only one compound, the derivatized 4-amino-6-trifluoromethyl-benzene-1,3-disulfonamide with the coumarinyl tail, showed effective inhibition of the transmembrane isoforms, with KIs of 5.9-14.2 nM, although it was less effective as hCA I and II inhibitor (KIs of 36-120 nM). An X-ray crystal structure of hCA II in complex with 4-(7-methoxy-coumarin-4-yl-acetamido)-benzenesulfonamide (KI of 9.1 nM against hCA II) showed the intact inhibitor coordinated to the zinc ion from the enzyme active site by the sulfonamide moiety, and participating in a edge-to-face stacking with Phe131, in addition to other hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions with water molecules and amino acid residues from the active site. Thus, sulfonamides incorporating coumarin rings have a distinct inhibition mechanism compared to the coumarins, and may lead to compounds with interesting inhibition profiles against various alpha-CAs found in mammals or parasites, such as Plasmodium falciparum.
Coumarinyl-substituted sulfonamides strongly inhibit several human carbonic anhydrase isoforms: solution and crystallographic investigations.,Wagner J, Avvaru BS, Robbins AH, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT, McKenna R Bioorg Med Chem. 2010 Jul 15;18(14):4873-8. Epub 2010 Jun 15. PMID:20598552
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.