Crystal structure of cobalt (III) human carbonic anhydrase II at pH 6.0
[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.    
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. 
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The visible absorption of crystals of Co(II)-substituted human carbonic anhydrase II (Co(II)-HCA II) were measured over a pH range of 6.0-11.0 giving an estimate of pK(a) 8.4 for the ionization of the metal-bound water in the crystal. This is higher by about 1.2 pK(a) units than the pK(a) near 7.2 for Co(II)-CA II in solution. This effect is attributed to a nonspecific ionic strength effect of 1.4M citrate in the precipitant solution used in the crystal growth. A pK(a) of 8.3 for the aqueous ligand of the cobalt was measured for Co(II)-HCA II in solution containing 0.8M citrate. Citrate is not an inhibitor of the catalytic activity of Co(II)-HCA II and was not observed in crystal structures. The X-ray structures at 1.5-1.6A resolution of Co(II)-HCA II were determined for crystals prepared at pH 6.0, 8.5 and 11.0 and revealed no conformational changes of amino-acid side chains as a result of the use of citrate. However, the studies of Co(II)-HCA II did reveal a change in metal coordination from tetrahedral at pH 11 to a coordination consistent with a mixed population of both tetrahedral and penta-coordinate at pH 8.5 to an octahedral geometry characteristic of the oxidized enzyme Co(III)-HCA II at pH 6.0.
Comparison of solution and crystal properties of Co(II)-substituted human carbonic anhydrase II.,Avvaru BS, Arenas DJ, Tu C, Tanner DB, McKenna R, Silverman DN Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010 Oct 1;502(1):53-59. Epub 2010 Jul 14. PMID:20637176
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.