|3igp, resolution 1.65Å ()|
Structure of inhibitor binding to Carbonic Anhydrase II
Following previous studies we herein report the exploration of the carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 18.104.22.168) inhibitory effects and enzyme selectivity of a small class of 1-(cyclo)alkylisoquinolines containing a sulfonamide function considered a key feature for inhibiting CA. The results of enzymatic assays against human (h) CA isoforms, hCA I and hCA II (cytosolic, ubiquitous enzymes), hCA IX (transmembrane, tumor-associated), and hCA XIV (transmembrane), suggested that the presence of C-1 small substituents on isoquinoline scaffold controls both inhibitory potency and selectivity. Some derivatives showed potent hCA IX and hCA XIV inhibitory effects at nanomolar concentrations as well as low affinity for the ubiquitous hCA II. Moreover, we report the X-ray crystal structure of one of these derivatives in complex with dominant human isoform II, thus confirming the sulfonamide-zinc interactions. Finally, the results of docking experiments suggested the hypothetic interactions in the catalytic binding site for the most active and selective hCA IX and hCA XIV inhibitor.
Identification of 3,4-Dihydroisoquinoline-2(1H)-sulfonamides as Potent Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: Synthesis, Biological Evaluation, and Enzyme-Ligand X-ray Studies., Gitto R, Agnello S, Ferro S, De Luca L, Vullo D, Brynda J, Mader P, Supuran CT, Chimirri A, J Med Chem. 2010 Feb 19. PMID:20170095
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye.
About this Structure
- Gitto R, Agnello S, Ferro S, De Luca L, Vullo D, Brynda J, Mader P, Supuran CT, Chimirri A. Identification of 3,4-Dihydroisoquinoline-2(1H)-sulfonamides as Potent Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: Synthesis, Biological Evaluation, and Enzyme-Ligand X-ray Studies. J Med Chem. 2010 Feb 19. PMID:20170095 doi:10.1021/jm9014026
- ↑ Venta PJ, Welty RJ, Johnson TM, Sly WS, Tashian RE. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome in a Belgian family is caused by a point mutation at an invariant histidine residue (107 His----Tyr): complete structure of the normal human CA II gene. Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Nov;49(5):1082-90. PMID:1928091
- ↑ Roth DE, Venta PJ, Tashian RE, Sly WS. Molecular basis of human carbonic anhydrase II deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Mar 1;89(5):1804-8. PMID:1542674
- ↑ Soda H, Yukizane S, Yoshida I, Koga Y, Aramaki S, Kato H. A point mutation in exon 3 (His 107-->Tyr) in two unrelated Japanese patients with carbonic anhydrase II deficiency with central nervous system involvement. Hum Genet. 1996 Apr;97(4):435-7. PMID:8834238
- ↑ Hu PY, Lim EJ, Ciccolella J, Strisciuglio P, Sly WS. Seven novel mutations in carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome identified by SSCP and direct sequencing analysis. Hum Mutat. 1997;9(5):383-7. PMID:9143915 doi:<383::AID-HUMU1>3.0.CO;2-5 10.1002/(SICI)1098-1004(1997)9:5<383::AID-HUMU1>3.0.CO;2-5
- ↑ Shah GN, Bonapace G, Hu PY, Strisciuglio P, Sly WS. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and brain calcification): novel mutations in CA2 identified by direct sequencing expand the opportunity for genotype-phenotype correlation. Hum Mutat. 2004 Sep;24(3):272. PMID:15300855 doi:10.1002/humu.9266
- ↑ Briganti F, Mangani S, Scozzafava A, Vernaglione G, Supuran CT. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes cyanamide hydration to urea: is it mimicking the physiological reaction? J Biol Inorg Chem. 1999 Oct;4(5):528-36. PMID:10550681
- ↑ Kim CY, Whittington DA, Chang JS, Liao J, May JA, Christianson DW. Structural aspects of isozyme selectivity in the binding of inhibitors to carbonic anhydrases II and IV. J Med Chem. 2002 Feb 14;45(4):888-93. PMID:11831900