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3f4x

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3f4x, resolution 1.90Å ()
Ligands: , ,
Activity: Carbonate dehydratase, with EC number 4.2.1.1
Related: 3bl1
Resources: FirstGlance, OCA, RCSB, PDBsum
Coordinates: save as pdb, mmCIF, xml


Contents

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Comparison of chlorthalidone and indapamide X-ray crystal structures in adducts with isozyme II: when three water molecules make the difference

Publication Abstract from PubMed

Thiazide diuretics inhibit all mammalian isoforms of carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) with a different profile as compared to classical inhibitors. Acting as moderate-weak inhibitors of CA II and CA I, chlorthalidone and indapamide considerably inhibit other isozymes among the 16 CAs present in vertebrates. These compounds show a different behavior against CAs I and II, with chlorthalidone being 18.3 times more potent against CA II and 150 times more potent against CA I, as compared to indapamide. In the X-ray crystal structures of the CA II-chlorthalidone adduct three active site water molecules interacting with the inhibitor scaffold were observed that lack in the corresponding indapamide adduct. Chlorthalidone bound within the active site is in an enolic tautomeric form, with the OH moiety participating in two strong hydrogen bonds with Asn67 and a water molecule. This binding mode may be exploited for designing better CA II inhibitors.

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Comparison of chlorthalidone and indapamide X-ray crystal structures in adducts with isozyme II: when three water molecules and the keto-enol tautomerism make the difference., Temperini C, Cecchi A, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT, J Med Chem. 2009 Jan 22;52(2):322-8. PMID:19115843

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.

Disease

[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.[1][2][3][4][5]

Function

[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye.[6][7]

About this Structure

3f4x is a 1 chain structure with sequence from Homo sapiens. Full crystallographic information is available from OCA.

See Also

Reference

  • Temperini C, Cecchi A, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Comparison of chlorthalidone and indapamide X-ray crystal structures in adducts with isozyme II: when three water molecules and the keto-enol tautomerism make the difference. J Med Chem. 2009 Jan 22;52(2):322-8. PMID:19115843 doi:10.1021/jm801386n
  1. Venta PJ, Welty RJ, Johnson TM, Sly WS, Tashian RE. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome in a Belgian family is caused by a point mutation at an invariant histidine residue (107 His----Tyr): complete structure of the normal human CA II gene. Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Nov;49(5):1082-90. PMID:1928091
  2. Roth DE, Venta PJ, Tashian RE, Sly WS. Molecular basis of human carbonic anhydrase II deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Mar 1;89(5):1804-8. PMID:1542674
  3. Soda H, Yukizane S, Yoshida I, Koga Y, Aramaki S, Kato H. A point mutation in exon 3 (His 107-->Tyr) in two unrelated Japanese patients with carbonic anhydrase II deficiency with central nervous system involvement. Hum Genet. 1996 Apr;97(4):435-7. PMID:8834238
  4. Hu PY, Lim EJ, Ciccolella J, Strisciuglio P, Sly WS. Seven novel mutations in carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome identified by SSCP and direct sequencing analysis. Hum Mutat. 1997;9(5):383-7. PMID:9143915 doi:<383::AID-HUMU1>3.0.CO;2-5 10.1002/(SICI)1098-1004(1997)9:5<383::AID-HUMU1>3.0.CO;2-5
  5. Shah GN, Bonapace G, Hu PY, Strisciuglio P, Sly WS. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and brain calcification): novel mutations in CA2 identified by direct sequencing expand the opportunity for genotype-phenotype correlation. Hum Mutat. 2004 Sep;24(3):272. PMID:15300855 doi:10.1002/humu.9266
  6. Briganti F, Mangani S, Scozzafava A, Vernaglione G, Supuran CT. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes cyanamide hydration to urea: is it mimicking the physiological reaction? J Biol Inorg Chem. 1999 Oct;4(5):528-36. PMID:10550681
  7. Kim CY, Whittington DA, Chang JS, Liao J, May JA, Christianson DW. Structural aspects of isozyme selectivity in the binding of inhibitors to carbonic anhydrases II and IV. J Med Chem. 2002 Feb 14;45(4):888-93. PMID:11831900

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