Crystal structure of the human carbonic anhydrase II in complex with STX 641 at 1.85 angstroms resolution
[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.    
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. 
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The synthesis, SAR, and preclinical evaluation of 17-cyanated 2-substituted estra-1,3,5(10)-trienes as anticancer agents are discussed. 2-Methoxy-17beta-cyanomethylestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-3-ol ( 14), but not the related 2-ethyl derivative 7, and the related 3- O-sulfamates 8 and 15 display potent antiproliferative effects (MCF-7 GI 50 300, 60 and 70 nM, respectively) against human cancer cells in vitro. Investigation of the SAR reveals that a sterically unhindered hydrogen bond acceptor attached to C-17 is most likely key to the enhanced activity. Compound 8 displayed significant in vitro antiangiogenic activity, and its ability to act as a microtubule disruptor was confirmed. Inhibitory activity of the sulfamate derivatives against steroid sulfatase and carbonic anhydrase II (hCAII) was also observed, and the interaction between 15 and hCAII was investigated by protein crystallography. The potential of these multimechanism anticancer agents was confirmed in vivo, with promising activity observed for both 14 and 15 in an athymic nude mouse MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer xenograft model.
Structure-activity relationships of C-17 cyano-substituted estratrienes as anticancer agents.,Leese MP, Jourdan FL, Gaukroger K, Mahon MF, Newman SP, Foster PA, Stengel C, Regis-Lydi S, Ferrandis E, Di Fiore A, De Simone G, Supuran CT, Purohit A, Reed MJ, Potter BV J Med Chem. 2008 Mar 13;51(5):1295-308. Epub 2008 Feb 9. PMID:18260615
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.