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2xyd, resolution 2.15Å ()
Ligands: , , , , , , , ,
Activity: Peptidyl-dipeptidase A, with EC number
Related: 2iul, 2iux, 2c6n, 1uze, 1o86, 1uzf, 2c6f, 1o8a, 2xy9

Resources: FirstGlance, OCA, RCSB, PDBsum
Coordinates: save as pdb, mmCIF, xml


human Angiotenisn converting enzyme N-domain in complex with Phosphinic tripeptide

Publication Abstract from PubMed

Human ACE (angiotensin-I-converting enzyme) has long been regarded as an excellent target for the treatment of hypertension and related cardiovascular diseases. Highly potent inhibitors have been developed and are extensively used in the clinic. To develop inhibitors with higher therapeutic efficacy and reduced side effects, recent efforts have been directed towards the discovery of compounds able to simultaneously block more than one zinc metallopeptidase (apart from ACE) involved in blood pressure regulation in humans, such as neprilysin and ECE-1 (endothelin-converting enzyme-1). In the present paper, we show the first structures of testis ACE [C-ACE, which is identical with the C-domain of somatic ACE and the dominant domain responsible for blood pressure regulation, at 1.97A (1 A=0.1 nm)] and the N-domain of somatic ACE (N-ACE, at 2.15A) in complex with a highly potent and selective dual ACE/ECE-1 inhibitor. The structural determinants revealed unique features of the binding of two molecules of the dual inhibitor in the active site of C-ACE. In both structures, the first molecule is positioned in the obligatory binding site and has a bulky bicyclic P1' residue with the unusual R configuration which, surprisingly, is accommodated by the large S2' pocket. In the C-ACE complex, the isoxazole phenyl group of the second molecule makes strong pi-pi stacking interactions with the amino benzoyl group of the first molecule locking them in a 'hand-shake' conformation. These features, for the first time, highlight the unusual architecture and flexibility of the active site of C-ACE, which could be further utilized for structure-based design of new C-ACE or vasopeptidase inhibitors.

Novel mechanism of inhibition of human angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) by a highly specific phosphinic tripeptide., Akif M, Schwager SL, Anthony CS, Czarny B, Beau F, Dive V, Sturrock ED, Acharya KR, Biochem J. 2011 May 15;436(1):53-9. PMID:21352096

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.


[ACE_HUMAN] Genetic variations in ACE may be a cause of susceptibility to ischemic stroke (ISCHSTR) [MIM:601367]; also known as cerebrovascular accident or cerebral infarction. A stroke is an acute neurologic event leading to death of neural tissue of the brain and resulting in loss of motor, sensory and/or cognitive function. Ischemic strokes, resulting from vascular occlusion, is considered to be a highly complex disease consisting of a group of heterogeneous disorders with multiple genetic and environmental risk factors.[1] Defects in ACE are a cause of renal tubular dysgenesis (RTD) [MIM:267430]. RTD is an autosomal recessive severe disorder of renal tubular development characterized by persistent fetal anuria and perinatal death, probably due to pulmonary hypoplasia from early-onset oligohydramnios (the Potter phenotype).[2] Genetic variations in ACE are associated with susceptibility to microvascular complications of diabetes type 3 (MVCD3) [MIM:612624]. These are pathological conditions that develop in numerous tissues and organs as a consequence of diabetes mellitus. They include diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy leading to end-stage renal disease, and diabetic neuropathy. Diabetic retinopathy remains the major cause of new-onset blindness among diabetic adults. It is characterized by vascular permeability and increased tissue ischemia and angiogenesis. Defects in ACE are a cause of susceptibility to intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) [MIM:614519]. A pathological condition characterized by bleeding into one or both cerebral hemispheres including the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortex. It is often associated with hypertension and craniocerebral trauma. Intracerebral bleeding is a common cause of stroke.[3]


[ACE_HUMAN] Converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II by release of the terminal His-Leu, this results in an increase of the vasoconstrictor activity of angiotensin. Also able to inactivate bradykinin, a potent vasodilator. Has also a glycosidase activity which releases GPI-anchored proteins from the membrane by cleaving the mannose linkage in the GPI moiety.

About this Structure

2xyd is a 2 chain structure with sequence from Homo sapiens. Full crystallographic information is available from OCA.

See Also


  • Akif M, Schwager SL, Anthony CS, Czarny B, Beau F, Dive V, Sturrock ED, Acharya KR. Novel mechanism of inhibition of human angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) by a highly specific phosphinic tripeptide. Biochem J. 2011 May 15;436(1):53-9. PMID:21352096 doi:10.1042/BJ20102123
  1. Casas JP, Hingorani AD, Bautista LE, Sharma P. Meta-analysis of genetic studies in ischemic stroke: thirty-two genes involving approximately 18,000 cases and 58,000 controls. Arch Neurol. 2004 Nov;61(11):1652-61. PMID:15534175 doi:61/11/1652
  2. Gribouval O, Gonzales M, Neuhaus T, Aziza J, Bieth E, Laurent N, Bouton JM, Feuillet F, Makni S, Ben Amar H, Laube G, Delezoide AL, Bouvier R, Dijoud F, Ollagnon-Roman E, Roume J, Joubert M, Antignac C, Gubler MC. Mutations in genes in the renin-angiotensin system are associated with autosomal recessive renal tubular dysgenesis. Nat Genet. 2005 Sep;37(9):964-8. Epub 2005 Aug 14. PMID:16116425 doi:ng1623
  3. Slowik A, Turaj W, Dziedzic T, Haefele A, Pera J, Malecki MT, Glodzik-Sobanska L, Szermer P, Figlewicz DA, Szczudlik A. DD genotype of ACE gene is a risk factor for intracerebral hemorrhage. Neurology. 2004 Jul 27;63(2):359-61. PMID:15277638

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