Refine atomic structure of human carbonic anhydrase II
[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.    
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. 
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) is a zinc-metalloenzyme that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of CO2 and HCO3-. The rate-limiting step of this catalysis is the transfer of a proton between the Zn-bound solvent molecule and residue His64. In order to fully characterize the active site structural features implicated in the proton transfer mechanism, the refined X-ray crystal structure of uncomplexed wild type HCA II to 1.05 A resolution with an Rcryst value of 12.0% and an Rfree value of 15.1% has been elucidated. This structure provides strong clues as to the pathway of the intramolecular proton transfer between the Zn-bound solvent and His64. The structure emphasizes the role of the solvent network, the unique positioning of solvent molecule W2, and the significance of the dual conformation of His64 in the active site. The structure is compared with molecular dynamics (MD) simulation calculations of the Zn-bound hydroxyl/His64+ (charged) and the Zn-bound water/His64 (uncharged) HCA II states. A comparison of the crystallographic anisotropic atomic thermal parameters and MD simulation root-mean-square fluctuation values show excellent agreement in the atomic motion observed between the two methods. It is also interesting that the observed active site solvent positions in the crystal structure are also the most probable positions of the solvent during the MD simulations. On the basis of the comparative study of the MD simulation results, the HCA II crystal structure observed is most likely in the Zn-bound water/His64 state. This conclusion is based on the following observations: His64 is mainly (80%) orientated in an inward conformation; electron density omit maps infer that His64 is not charged in an either inward or outward conformation; and the Zn-bound solvent is most likely a water molecule.
Atomic crystal and molecular dynamics simulation structures of human carbonic anhydrase II: insights into the proton transfer mechanism.,Fisher SZ, Maupin CM, Budayova-Spano M, Govindasamy L, Tu C, Agbandje-McKenna M, Silverman DN, Voth GA, McKenna R Biochemistry. 2007 Mar 20;46(11):2930-7. Epub 2007 Feb 24. PMID:17319692
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.