[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye.
The X-ray crystal structures of 5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfonamide (the acetazolamide precursor) and 5-(4-amino-3-chloro-5-fluorophenylsulfonamido)-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfona mide in complex with the human isozyme II of carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 184.108.40.206) are reported. The thiadiazole-sulfonamide moiety of the two compounds binds in the canonic manner to the zinc ion and interacts with Thr199, Glu106, and Thr200. The substituted phenyl tail of the second inhibitor was positioned in the hydrophobic part of the binding pocket, at van der Waals distance from Phe131, Val 135, Val141, Leu198, Pro202, and Leu204. These structures may help in the design of better inhibitors of these widespread zinc-containing enzymes.
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: X-ray crystallographic studies for the binding of 5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfonamide and 5-(4-amino-3-chloro-5-fluorophenylsulfonamido)-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfona mide to human isoform II.,Menchise V, De Simone G, Di Fiore A, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2006 Dec 15;16(24):6204-8. Epub 2006 Sep 26. PMID:17000110
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
↑ Venta PJ, Welty RJ, Johnson TM, Sly WS, Tashian RE. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome in a Belgian family is caused by a point mutation at an invariant histidine residue (107 His----Tyr): complete structure of the normal human CA II gene. Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Nov;49(5):1082-90. PMID:1928091
↑ Roth DE, Venta PJ, Tashian RE, Sly WS. Molecular basis of human carbonic anhydrase II deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Mar 1;89(5):1804-8. PMID:1542674
↑ Soda H, Yukizane S, Yoshida I, Koga Y, Aramaki S, Kato H. A point mutation in exon 3 (His 107-->Tyr) in two unrelated Japanese patients with carbonic anhydrase II deficiency with central nervous system involvement. Hum Genet. 1996 Apr;97(4):435-7. PMID:8834238
↑ Shah GN, Bonapace G, Hu PY, Strisciuglio P, Sly WS. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and brain calcification): novel mutations in CA2 identified by direct sequencing expand the opportunity for genotype-phenotype correlation. Hum Mutat. 2004 Sep;24(3):272. PMID:15300855 doi:10.1002/humu.9266
↑ Briganti F, Mangani S, Scozzafava A, Vernaglione G, Supuran CT. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes cyanamide hydration to urea: is it mimicking the physiological reaction? J Biol Inorg Chem. 1999 Oct;4(5):528-36. PMID:10550681
↑ Kim CY, Whittington DA, Chang JS, Liao J, May JA, Christianson DW. Structural aspects of isozyme selectivity in the binding of inhibitors to carbonic anhydrases II and IV. J Med Chem. 2002 Feb 14;45(4):888-93. PMID:11831900
↑ Menchise V, De Simone G, Di Fiore A, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: X-ray crystallographic studies for the binding of 5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfonamide and 5-(4-amino-3-chloro-5-fluorophenylsulfonamido)-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfona mide to human isoform II. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2006 Dec 15;16(24):6204-8. Epub 2006 Sep 26. PMID:17000110 doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2006.09.022