[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye.
The anticancer activities and SARs of estradiol-17-O-sulfamates and estradiol 3,17-O,O-bis-sulfamates (E2bisMATEs) as steroid sulfatase (STS) inhibitors and antiproliferative agents are discussed. Estradiol 3,17-O,O-bis-sulfamates 20 and 21, in contrast to the 17-O-monosulfamate 11, proved to be excellent STS inhibitors. 2-Substituted E2bisMATEs 21 and 23 additionally exhibited potent antiproliferative activity with mean graph midpoint values of 18-87 nM in the NCI 60-cell-line panel. 21 Exhibited antiangiogenic in vitro and in vivo activity in an early-stage Lewis lung model, and 23 dosed p.o. caused marked growth inhibition in a nude mouse xenograft tumor model. Modeling studies suggest that the E2bisMATEs and 2-MeOE2 share a common mode of binding to tubulin, though COMPARE analysis of activity profiles was negative. 21 was cocrystallized with carbonic anhydrase II, and X-ray crystallography revealed unexpected coordination of the 17-O-sulfamate of 21 to the active site zinc and a probable additional lower affinity binding site. 2-Substituted E2bisMATEs are attractive candidates for further development as multitargeted anticancer agents.
2-substituted estradiol bis-sulfamates, multitargeted antitumor agents: synthesis, in vitro SAR, protein crystallography, and in vivo activity.,Leese MP, Leblond B, Smith A, Newman SP, Di Fiore A, De Simone G, Supuran CT, Purohit A, Reed MJ, Potter BV J Med Chem. 2006 Dec 28;49(26):7683-96. PMID:17181151
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
↑ Venta PJ, Welty RJ, Johnson TM, Sly WS, Tashian RE. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome in a Belgian family is caused by a point mutation at an invariant histidine residue (107 His----Tyr): complete structure of the normal human CA II gene. Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Nov;49(5):1082-90. PMID:1928091
↑ Roth DE, Venta PJ, Tashian RE, Sly WS. Molecular basis of human carbonic anhydrase II deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Mar 1;89(5):1804-8. PMID:1542674
↑ Soda H, Yukizane S, Yoshida I, Koga Y, Aramaki S, Kato H. A point mutation in exon 3 (His 107-->Tyr) in two unrelated Japanese patients with carbonic anhydrase II deficiency with central nervous system involvement. Hum Genet. 1996 Apr;97(4):435-7. PMID:8834238
↑ Shah GN, Bonapace G, Hu PY, Strisciuglio P, Sly WS. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and brain calcification): novel mutations in CA2 identified by direct sequencing expand the opportunity for genotype-phenotype correlation. Hum Mutat. 2004 Sep;24(3):272. PMID:15300855 doi:10.1002/humu.9266
↑ Briganti F, Mangani S, Scozzafava A, Vernaglione G, Supuran CT. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes cyanamide hydration to urea: is it mimicking the physiological reaction? J Biol Inorg Chem. 1999 Oct;4(5):528-36. PMID:10550681
↑ Kim CY, Whittington DA, Chang JS, Liao J, May JA, Christianson DW. Structural aspects of isozyme selectivity in the binding of inhibitors to carbonic anhydrases II and IV. J Med Chem. 2002 Feb 14;45(4):888-93. PMID:11831900
↑ Leese MP, Leblond B, Smith A, Newman SP, Di Fiore A, De Simone G, Supuran CT, Purohit A, Reed MJ, Potter BV. 2-substituted estradiol bis-sulfamates, multitargeted antitumor agents: synthesis, in vitro SAR, protein crystallography, and in vivo activity. J Med Chem. 2006 Dec 28;49(26):7683-96. PMID:17181151 doi:10.1021/jm060705x