Activation of human carbonic anhydrase II by exogenous proton donors
[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.    
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. 
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Small molecule rescue of mutant forms of human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) occurs by participation of exogenous donors/acceptors in the proton transfer pathway between the zinc-bound water and solution. To examine more thoroughly the energetics of this activation, we have constructed a mutant, H64W HCA II, which we have shown is activated by 4-methylimidazole (4-MI) by a mechanism involving the binding of 4-MI to the side chain of Trp-64 approximately 8 A from the zinc. A series of experiments are consistent with the activation of H64W HCA II by the interaction of imidazole and pyridine derivatives as exogenous proton donors with the indole ring of Trp-64; these experiments include pH profiles and H/D solvent isotope effects consistent with proton transfer, observation of approximately fourfold greater activation with the mutant containing Trp-64 compared with Gly-64, and the observation by x-ray crystallography of the binding of 4-MI associated with the indole side chain of Trp-64 in W5A-H64W HCA II. Proton donors bound at the less flexible side chain of Trp-64 in W5A-H64W HCA II do not show activation, but such donors bound at the more flexible Trp-64 of H64W HCA II do show activation, supporting suggestions that conformational mobility of the binding site is associated with more efficient proton transfer. Evaluation using Marcus theory showed that the activation of H64W HCA II by these proton donors was reflected in the work functions w(r) and w(p) rather than in the intrinsic Marcus barrier itself, consistent with the role of solvent reorganization in catalysis.
Location of binding sites in small molecule rescue of human carbonic anhydrase II.,Bhatt D, Fisher SZ, Tu C, McKenna R, Silverman DN Biophys J. 2007 Jan 15;92(2):562-70. Epub 2006 Oct 27. PMID:17071654
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.