[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye.
Activation of six human brain carbonic anhydrases (hCAs, EC 18.104.22.168), hCA I, II, IV, VA, VII, and XIV, with l-/d-phenylalanine was investigated kinetically and by X-ray crystallography. l-Phe was a potent activator of isozymes I, II, and XIV (K(A)s of 13-240 nM), a weaker activator of hCA VA and VII (K(A)s of 9.8-10.9 microM), and a quite inefficient hCA IV activator (K(A) of 52 microM). d-Phe showed good hCA II activatory properties (K(A) of 35 nM), being a moderate hCA VA, VII, and XIV (K(A)s of 4.6-9.7 microM) and a weak hCA I and IV activator (K(A)s of 63-86 microM). X-ray crystallography of the hCA II-l-Phe/d-Phe adducts showed the activators to be anchored at the entrance of the active site, participating in numerous bonds and hydrophobic interactions with amino acid residues His64, Thr200, Trp5, and Pro201. This is the first study showing different binding modes of stereoisomeric activators within the hCA II active site, with consequences for overall proton transfer processes (rate-determining for the catalytic cycle). It also points out differences of activation efficiency between various isozymes with structurally related activators, exploitable for designing alternative proton transfer pathways. CA activators may lead to the design of pharmacologically useful derivatives for the enhancement of synaptic efficacy, which may represent a conceptually new approach for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, aging, and other conditions in which spatial learning and memory therapy must be enhanced. As the blood and brain concentrations of l-Phe are quite variable (30-73 microM), activity of some brain CAs may strongly be influenced by the level of activator(s) present in such tissues.
Carbonic anhydrase activators. Activation of isoforms I, II, IV, VA, VII, and XIV with L- and D-phenylalanine and crystallographic analysis of their adducts with isozyme II: stereospecific recognition within the active site of an enzyme and its consequences for the drug design.,Temperini C, Scozzafava A, Vullo D, Supuran CT J Med Chem. 2006 May 18;49(10):3019-27. PMID:16686544
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
↑ Venta PJ, Welty RJ, Johnson TM, Sly WS, Tashian RE. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome in a Belgian family is caused by a point mutation at an invariant histidine residue (107 His----Tyr): complete structure of the normal human CA II gene. Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Nov;49(5):1082-90. PMID:1928091
↑ Roth DE, Venta PJ, Tashian RE, Sly WS. Molecular basis of human carbonic anhydrase II deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Mar 1;89(5):1804-8. PMID:1542674
↑ Soda H, Yukizane S, Yoshida I, Koga Y, Aramaki S, Kato H. A point mutation in exon 3 (His 107-->Tyr) in two unrelated Japanese patients with carbonic anhydrase II deficiency with central nervous system involvement. Hum Genet. 1996 Apr;97(4):435-7. PMID:8834238
↑ Shah GN, Bonapace G, Hu PY, Strisciuglio P, Sly WS. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and brain calcification): novel mutations in CA2 identified by direct sequencing expand the opportunity for genotype-phenotype correlation. Hum Mutat. 2004 Sep;24(3):272. PMID:15300855 doi:10.1002/humu.9266
↑ Briganti F, Mangani S, Scozzafava A, Vernaglione G, Supuran CT. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes cyanamide hydration to urea: is it mimicking the physiological reaction? J Biol Inorg Chem. 1999 Oct;4(5):528-36. PMID:10550681
↑ Kim CY, Whittington DA, Chang JS, Liao J, May JA, Christianson DW. Structural aspects of isozyme selectivity in the binding of inhibitors to carbonic anhydrases II and IV. J Med Chem. 2002 Feb 14;45(4):888-93. PMID:11831900
↑ Temperini C, Scozzafava A, Vullo D, Supuran CT. Carbonic anhydrase activators. Activation of isoforms I, II, IV, VA, VII, and XIV with L- and D-phenylalanine and crystallographic analysis of their adducts with isozyme II: stereospecific recognition within the active site of an enzyme and its consequences for the drug design. J Med Chem. 2006 May 18;49(10):3019-27. PMID:16686544 doi:10.1021/jm0603320