Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: Valdecoxib binds to a different active site region of the human isoform II as compared to the structurally related cyclooxygenase II "selective" inhibitor Celecoxib
[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.    
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. 
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The high resolution X-ray crystal structure of the adduct of human carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 18.104.22.168) isoform II (hCA II) with the clinically used painkiller valdecoxib, acting as a potent CA II and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, is reported. The ionized sulfonamide moiety of valdecoxib is coordinated to the catalytic Zn(II) ion with a tetrahedral geometry. The phenyl-isoxazole moiety of the inhibitor fills the active site channel and interacts with the side chains of Gln92, Val121, Leu198, Thr200, and Pro202. Its 3-phenyl group is located into a hydrophobic pocket, simultaneously establishing van der Waals interactions with the aliphatic side chain of various hydrophobic residues (Val135, Ile91, Val121, Leu198, and Leu141) and a strong offset face-to-face stacking interaction with the aromatic ring of Phe131 (the chi1 angle of which is rotated about 90 degrees with respect to what was observed in the structure of the native enzyme and those of other sulfonamide complexes). Celecoxib, a structurally related COX-2 inhibitor for which the X-ray crystal structure was reported earlier, binds in a completely different manner to hCA II as compared to valdecoxib. Celecoxib completely fills the entire CA II active site, with its trifluoromethyl group in the hydrophobic part of the active site and the p-tolyl moiety in the hydrophilic one, not establishing any interaction with Phe131. In contrast to celecoxib, valdecoxib was rotated about 90 degrees around the chemical bond connecting the benzensulfonamide and the substituted isoxazole ring allowing for these multiple favorable interactions. These different binding modes allow for the further drug design of various CA inhibitors belonging to the benzenesulfonamide class.
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: Valdecoxib binds to a different active site region of the human isoform II as compared to the structurally related cyclooxygenase II "selective" inhibitor celecoxib.,Di Fiore A, Pedone C, D'Ambrosio K, Scozzafava A, De Simone G, Supuran CT Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2006 Jan 15;16(2):437-42. Epub 2005 Nov 14. PMID:16290146
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.