[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye.
By optimizing binding to a selected target protein, modern drug research strives to develop safe and efficacious agents for the treatment of disease. Selective drug action is intended to minimize undesirable side effects from scatter pharmacology. Celecoxib (Celebrex), valdecoxib (Bextra), and rofecoxib (Vioxx) are nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) due to selective inhibition of inducible cyclooxygenase COX-2 while sparing inhibition of constitutive COX-1. While rofecoxib contains a methyl sulfone constituent, celecoxib and valdecoxib possess an unsubstituted arylsulfonamide moiety. The latter group is common to many carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors. Using enzyme kinetics and X-ray crystallography, we demonstrate an unexpected nanomolar affinity of the COX-2 specific arylsulfonamide-type celecoxib and valdecoxib for isoenzymes of the totally unrelated carbonic anhydrase (CA) family, such as CA I, II, IV, and IX, whereas the rofecoxib methyl sulfone-type has no effect. When administered orally to glaucomatous rabbits, celecoxib and valdecoxib lowered intraocular pressure, suggesting that these agents may have utility in the treatment of this disorder. The crystal structure of celecoxib in complex with CA II reveals part of this inhibition to be mediated via binding of the sulfonamide group to the catalytic zinc of CA II. To investigate the structural basis for cross-reactivity of these compounds between COX-2 and CA II, we compared the molecular recognition properties of both protein binding pockets in terms of local physicochemical similarities among binding site-exposed amino acids accommodating different portions of the drug molecules. Our approach Cavbase, implemented into Relibase, detects similarities between the sites, suggesting some potential to predict unexpected cross-reactivity of drugs among functionally unrelated target proteins. The observed cross-reactivity with CAs may also contribute to differences in the pharmacological profiles, in particular with respect to glaucoma and anticancer therapy and may suggest new opportunities of these COX-2 selective NSAIDs.
Unexpected nanomolar inhibition of carbonic anhydrase by COX-2-selective celecoxib: new pharmacological opportunities due to related binding site recognition.,Weber A, Casini A, Heine A, Kuhn D, Supuran CT, Scozzafava A, Klebe G J Med Chem. 2004 Jan 29;47(3):550-7. PMID:14736236
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↑ Venta PJ, Welty RJ, Johnson TM, Sly WS, Tashian RE. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome in a Belgian family is caused by a point mutation at an invariant histidine residue (107 His----Tyr): complete structure of the normal human CA II gene. Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Nov;49(5):1082-90. PMID:1928091
↑ Roth DE, Venta PJ, Tashian RE, Sly WS. Molecular basis of human carbonic anhydrase II deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Mar 1;89(5):1804-8. PMID:1542674
↑ Soda H, Yukizane S, Yoshida I, Koga Y, Aramaki S, Kato H. A point mutation in exon 3 (His 107-->Tyr) in two unrelated Japanese patients with carbonic anhydrase II deficiency with central nervous system involvement. Hum Genet. 1996 Apr;97(4):435-7. PMID:8834238
↑ Shah GN, Bonapace G, Hu PY, Strisciuglio P, Sly WS. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and brain calcification): novel mutations in CA2 identified by direct sequencing expand the opportunity for genotype-phenotype correlation. Hum Mutat. 2004 Sep;24(3):272. PMID:15300855 doi:10.1002/humu.9266
↑ Briganti F, Mangani S, Scozzafava A, Vernaglione G, Supuran CT. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes cyanamide hydration to urea: is it mimicking the physiological reaction? J Biol Inorg Chem. 1999 Oct;4(5):528-36. PMID:10550681
↑ Kim CY, Whittington DA, Chang JS, Liao J, May JA, Christianson DW. Structural aspects of isozyme selectivity in the binding of inhibitors to carbonic anhydrases II and IV. J Med Chem. 2002 Feb 14;45(4):888-93. PMID:11831900
↑ Weber A, Casini A, Heine A, Kuhn D, Supuran CT, Scozzafava A, Klebe G. Unexpected nanomolar inhibition of carbonic anhydrase by COX-2-selective celecoxib: new pharmacological opportunities due to related binding site recognition. J Med Chem. 2004 Jan 29;47(3):550-7. PMID:14736236 doi:10.1021/jm030912m