Site-Specific Mutant (Tyr7 replaced with His) of Human Carbonic Anhydrase II
[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.    
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. 
Publication Abstract from PubMed
We have prepared a site-specific mutant of human carbonic anhydrase (HCA) II with histidine residues at positions 7 and 64 in the active site cavity. Using a different isozyme, we have placed histidine residues in HCA III at positions 64 and 67 and in another mutant at positions 64 and 7. Each of these histidine residues can act as a proton transfer group in catalysis when it is the only nonliganding histidine in the active site cavity, except His(7) in HCA III. Using an (18)O exchange method to measure rate constants for intramolecular proton transfer, we have found that inserting two histidine residues into the active site cavity of either isozyme II or III of carbonic anhydrase results in rates of proton transfer to the zinc-bound hydroxide that are antagonistic or suppressive with respect to the corresponding single mutants. The crystal structure of Y7H HCA II, which contains both His(7) and His(64) within the active site cavity, shows the conformation of the side chain of His(64) moved from its position in the wild type and hydrogen-bonded through an intervening water molecule with the side chain of His(7). This suggests a cause of decreased proton transfer in catalysis.
Kinetic analysis of multiple proton shuttles in the active site of human carbonic anhydrase.,Tu C, Qian M, An H, Wadhwa NR, Duda D, Yoshioka C, Pathak Y, McKenna R, Laipis PJ, Silverman DN J Biol Chem. 2002 Oct 11;277(41):38870-6. Epub 2002 Aug 8. PMID:12171926
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.