CARBONIC ANHYDRASE II COMPLEXED WITH AL-6619 2H-THIENO[3,2-E]-1,2-THIAZINE-6-SULFONAMIDE, 2-(3-HYDROXYPHENYL)-3-(4-MORPHOLINYL)-, 1,1-DIOXIDE
[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.    
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. 
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are effective in lowering intraocular pressure, the primary indication of glaucoma. Human carbonic anhydrase II, and possibly carbonic anhydrase IV (CAII and CAIV, respectively), help regulate fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. Because inhibitors currently formulated as drugs to treat glaucoma were designed to target CAII, an understanding of the structural basis of CAII-CAIV discrimination by inhibitors would be useful for probing the role of each isozyme in the etiology of the disease. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structures of three novel thieno[3,2-e]-1,2-thiazine-6-sulfonamides complexed with CAII and the computationally predicted structures of the same compounds complexed with CAIV. All three compounds bind with similar affinity to CAII, but they bind with up to 100-fold lower affinities to CAIV. Comparisons of experimentally determined structures of CAII-inhibitor complexes and computationally predicted structures of CAIV-inhibitor complexes allow us to rationalize these affinity trends and outline molecular features that may contribute to high-affinity inhibitor binding to CAIV. This study demonstrates how experimental structure determination methods and computational structure prediction methods can be used together to answer questions that cannot be answered by either method alone.
Structural aspects of isozyme selectivity in the binding of inhibitors to carbonic anhydrases II and IV.,Kim CY, Whittington DA, Chang JS, Liao J, May JA, Christianson DW J Med Chem. 2002 Feb 14;45(4):888-93. PMID:11831900
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.