SITE-SPECIFIC MUTANT (HIS64 REPLACED WITH ALA) OF HUMAN CARBONIC ANHYDRASE II COMPLEXED WITH 4-METHYLIMIDAZOLE
[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.    
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. 
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Histidine 64 in human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) functions in the catalytic pathway of CO(2) hydration as a shuttle to transfer protons between the zinc-bound water and bulk water. Catalysis of the exchange of (18)O between CO(2) and water, measured by mass spectrometry, is dependent on this proton transfer and was decreased more than 10-fold for H64A HCA II compared with wild-type HCA II. The loss of catalytic activity of H64A HCA II could be rescued by 4-methylimidazole (4-MI), an exogenous proton donor, in a saturable process with a maximum activity of 40% of wild-type HCA II. The crystal structure of the rescued complex at 1.6 A resolution shows 4-MI bound in the active-site cavity of H64A HCA II, through pi stacking interactions with Trp 5 and H-bonding interactions with water molecules. In this location, 4-MI is about 12 A from the zinc and approximates the observed "out" position of His 64 in the structure of the wild-type enzyme. 4-MI appears to compensate for the absence of His 64 and rescues the catalytic activity of the H64A HCA II mutant. This result strongly suggests that the out conformation of His 64 is effective in the transfer of protons between the zinc-bound solvent molecule and solution.
Structural and kinetic analysis of the chemical rescue of the proton transfer function of carbonic anhydrase II.,Duda D, Tu C, Qian M, Laipis P, Agbandje-McKenna M, Silverman DN, McKenna R Biochemistry. 2001 Feb 13;40(6):1741-8. PMID:11327835
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.