STRUCTURE-ASSISTED REDESIGN OF A PROTEIN-ZINC BINDING SITE WITH FEMTOMOLAR AFFINITY
[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.    
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. 
Publication Abstract from PubMed
We have inserted a fourth protein ligand into the zinc coordination polyhedron of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) that increases metal affinity 200-fold (Kd = 20 fM). The three-dimensional structures of threonine-199-->aspartate (T199D) and threonine-199-->glutamate (T199E) CAIIs, determined by x-ray crystallographic methods to resolutions of 2.35 Angstrum and 2.2 Angstrum, respectively, reveal a tetrahedral metal-binding site consisting of H94, H96, H119, and the engineered carboxylate side chain, which displaces zinc-bound hydroxide. Although the stereochemistry of neither engineered carboxylate-zinc interaction is comparable to that found in naturally occurring protein zinc-binding sites, protein-zinc affinity is enhanced in T199E CAII demonstrating that ligand-metal separation is a significant determinant of carboxylate-zinc affinity. In contrast, the three-dimensional structure of threonine-199-->histidine (T199H) CAII, determined to 2.25-Angstrum resolution, indicates that the engineered imidazole side chain rotates away from the metal and does not coordinate to zinc; this results in a weaker zinc-binding site. All three of these substitutions nearly obliterate CO2 hydrase activity, consistent with the role of zinc-bound hydroxide as catalytic nucleophile. The engineering of an additional protein ligand represents a general approach for increasing protein-metal affinity if the side chain can adopt a reasonable conformation and achieve inner-sphere zinc coordination. Moreover, this structure-assisted design approach may be effective in the development of high-sensitivity metal ion biosensors.
Structure-assisted redesign of a protein-zinc-binding site with femtomolar affinity.,Ippolito JA, Baird TT Jr, McGee SA, Christianson DW, Fierke CA Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 May 23;92(11):5017-21. PMID:7761440
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.