|1bv3, resolution 1.85Å ()|
HUMAN CARBONIC ANHYDRASE II COMPLEXED WITH UREA
The interaction of human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) isozymes I and II with cyanamide, a linear molecule isoelectronic with the main physiological substrate of the enzyme, CO(2), was investigated through spectroscopic, kinetic, and X-ray crystallographic studies. We show here that cyanamide is hydrated to urea in the presence of CAs, and that it also acts as a weak non-competitive inhibitor (K(I)=61+/-3 mM and 238+/-9 mM for hCA II and hCA I, respectively) towards the esterasic activity of these enzymes, as tested with 4-nitrophenyl acetate. Changes in the spectrum of the Co(II)-hCA II derivative observed in the presence of cyanamide suggest that it likely binds the metal ion within the CA active site, adding to the coordination sphere, not substituting the metal-bound solvent molecule. It thereafter undergoes a nucleophilic attack from the metal-bound hydroxide ion, forming urea which remains bound to the metal, as observed in the X-ray crystal structure of hCA II soaked in cyanamide solutions for several hours. The urea molecule is directly coordinated to the active site Zn(II) ion through a protonated nitrogen atom. Several hydrogen bonds involving active site residues Thr199 and Thr200 as well as three water molecules (Wat99, Wat122, and Wat123) further stabilize the urea-hCA II adduct. Kinetic studies in solution further proved that urea acts as a tight binding inhibitor of the two isozymes hCA I and hCA II, with very slow binding kinetics (k(on) = 2.5 x 10(-5)s(-1)M(-1)). A mechanism to explain the hydration process of cyanamide by CAs, as well as the tight binding of urea in the active site, is also proposed based on the hypothesis that urea is deprotonated when bound to the enzyme. Cyanamide is thus the first true suicide substrate of this enzyme for which binding has been documented by means of X-ray crystallographic and spectroscopic studies.
Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes cyanamide hydration to urea: is it mimicking the physiological reaction?, Briganti F, Mangani S, Scozzafava A, Vernaglione G, Supuran CT, J Biol Inorg Chem. 1999 Oct;4(5):528-36. PMID:10550681
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye.
About this Structure
- Briganti F, Mangani S, Scozzafava A, Vernaglione G, Supuran CT. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes cyanamide hydration to urea: is it mimicking the physiological reaction? J Biol Inorg Chem. 1999 Oct;4(5):528-36. PMID:10550681
- ↑ Venta PJ, Welty RJ, Johnson TM, Sly WS, Tashian RE. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome in a Belgian family is caused by a point mutation at an invariant histidine residue (107 His----Tyr): complete structure of the normal human CA II gene. Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Nov;49(5):1082-90. PMID:1928091
- ↑ Roth DE, Venta PJ, Tashian RE, Sly WS. Molecular basis of human carbonic anhydrase II deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Mar 1;89(5):1804-8. PMID:1542674
- ↑ Soda H, Yukizane S, Yoshida I, Koga Y, Aramaki S, Kato H. A point mutation in exon 3 (His 107-->Tyr) in two unrelated Japanese patients with carbonic anhydrase II deficiency with central nervous system involvement. Hum Genet. 1996 Apr;97(4):435-7. PMID:8834238
- ↑ Hu PY, Lim EJ, Ciccolella J, Strisciuglio P, Sly WS. Seven novel mutations in carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome identified by SSCP and direct sequencing analysis. Hum Mutat. 1997;9(5):383-7. PMID:9143915 doi:<383::AID-HUMU1>3.0.CO;2-5 10.1002/(SICI)1098-1004(1997)9:5<383::AID-HUMU1>3.0.CO;2-5
- ↑ Shah GN, Bonapace G, Hu PY, Strisciuglio P, Sly WS. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and brain calcification): novel mutations in CA2 identified by direct sequencing expand the opportunity for genotype-phenotype correlation. Hum Mutat. 2004 Sep;24(3):272. PMID:15300855 doi:10.1002/humu.9266
- ↑ Briganti F, Mangani S, Scozzafava A, Vernaglione G, Supuran CT. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes cyanamide hydration to urea: is it mimicking the physiological reaction? J Biol Inorg Chem. 1999 Oct;4(5):528-36. PMID:10550681
- ↑ Kim CY, Whittington DA, Chang JS, Liao J, May JA, Christianson DW. Structural aspects of isozyme selectivity in the binding of inhibitors to carbonic anhydrases II and IV. J Med Chem. 2002 Feb 14;45(4):888-93. PMID:11831900