HUMAN CARBONIC ANHYDRASE II COMPLEXED WITH BRINZOLAMIDE
[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.    
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. 
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Carbonic anhydrase IV (CAIV) is a membrane-associated enzyme anchored to plasma membrane surfaces by a phosphatidylinositol glycan linkage. We have determined the 2.8-angstroms resolution crystal structure of a truncated, soluble form of recombinant murine CAIV. We have also determined the structure of its complex with a drug used for glaucoma therapy, the sulfonamide inhibitor brinzolamide (Azopt). The overall structure of murine CAIV is generally similar to that of human CAIV; however, some local structural differences are found in the active site resulting from amino acid sequence differences in the "130's segment" and the residue-63 loop (these may affect the nearby catalytic proton shuttle, His-64). Similar to human CAIV, the C-terminus of murine CAIV is surrounded by a substantial electropositive surface potential that may stabilize the interaction with the phospholipid membrane. Binding interactions observed for brinzolamide rationalize the generally weaker affinity of inhibitors used in glaucoma therapy toward CAIV compared with CAII.
Structures of murine carbonic anhydrase IV and human carbonic anhydrase II complexed with brinzolamide: molecular basis of isozyme-drug discrimination.,Stams T, Chen Y, Boriack-Sjodin PA, Hurt JD, Liao J, May JA, Dean T, Laipis P, Silverman DN, Christianson DW Protein Sci. 1998 Mar;7(3):556-63. PMID:9541386
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.