ENGINEERING THE HYDROPHOBIC POCKET OF CARBONIC ANHYDRASE II
[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.    
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. 
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Wild-type and mutant human carbonic anhydrases II, where mutations have been made in the hydrophobic pocket of the active site, have been studied by X-ray crystallographic methods. Specifically, mutations at Val-143 (the base of the pocket) lead to significant changes in catalytic activity and protein structure. The obliteration of a well-defined pocket in the Val-143----Phe and Val-143----Tyr mutants results in significantly diminished enzyme activity [(5 x 10(4))-fold and (3 x 10(5))-fold, respectively]; however, the activity of the Val-143----His mutant is diminished less (10(2)-fold), and deepening the pocket in the Val-143----Gly mutant results in only a 2-fold decrease in activity [Fierke et al., 1991 (preceding paper in this issue)]. These results indicate that the hydrophobic pocket is important for substrate association with the enzyme, but there are probably several catalytically acceptable substrate trajectories through this region of the enzyme structure. Additionally, each mutant protein exhibits long-range (ca. 10-15 A) compensatory structural changes which accommodate the Val-143 substitution. As such, the genetic-structural approach represented in this work serves as a three-dimensional paradigm for the redesign of specificity pockets in other protein catalysts.
Engineering the hydrophobic pocket of carbonic anhydrase II.,Alexander RS, Nair SK, Christianson DW Biochemistry. 1991 Nov 19;30(46):11064-72. PMID:1932029
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.