Structure of human carbonic anhydrase II in complex with an adamantyl sulfonamide inhibitor
[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.    
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. 
Publication Abstract from PubMed
We investigated the inhibitory activity of sulfonamides incorporating adamantyl moieties against the physiologically relevant human (h) CA (EC 22.214.171.124) isoforms hCA I, II III (cytosolic), IX and XII (transmembrane, tumor-associated). The presence of a benzenesulfonamide instead of an 1,3,4-thiadiazole-sulfonamide fragment in the molecule of CA inhibitors (CAIs) drastically affects both inhibition efficacy and binding within the enzyme active site, as rationalized by means of X-ray crystallography of the adduct of hCA II with 4-(1-adamantylcarboxamidomethyl)benzenesulfonamide. Comparing the present X-ray structure with that of the corresponding 1,3,4-thiadiazole-sulfonamide compound possessing the 1-adamantylcarboxamide moiety, important differences of binding emerged, which explain the highly different inhibition profile of the two compounds against the investigated CA isoforms, most of which (CA I, II, IX and XII) are important drug targets.
Structural effect of phenyl ring compared to thiadiazole based adamantyl-sulfonamides on carbonic anhydrase inhibition.,Biswas S, Carta F, Scozzafava A, McKenna R, Supuran CT Bioorg Med Chem. 2013 Apr 15;21(8):2314-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2013.02.022. Epub, 2013 Feb 21. PMID:23490152
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