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4ilx, resolution 1.60Å ()
Ligands: , , ,
Gene: CA2 (Homo sapiens)
Activity: Carbonate dehydratase, with EC number

Resources: FirstGlance, OCA, RCSB, PDBsum
Coordinates: save as pdb, mmCIF, xml


Structure of human carbonic anhydrase II in complex with an adamantyl sulfonamide inhibitor

Publication Abstract from PubMed

We investigated the inhibitory activity of sulfonamides incorporating adamantyl moieties against the physiologically relevant human (h) CA (EC isoforms hCA I, II III (cytosolic), IX and XII (transmembrane, tumor-associated). The presence of a benzenesulfonamide instead of an 1,3,4-thiadiazole-sulfonamide fragment in the molecule of CA inhibitors (CAIs) drastically affects both inhibition efficacy and binding within the enzyme active site, as rationalized by means of X-ray crystallography of the adduct of hCA II with 4-(1-adamantylcarboxamidomethyl)benzenesulfonamide. Comparing the present X-ray structure with that of the corresponding 1,3,4-thiadiazole-sulfonamide compound possessing the 1-adamantylcarboxamide moiety, important differences of binding emerged, which explain the highly different inhibition profile of the two compounds against the investigated CA isoforms, most of which (CA I, II, IX and XII) are important drug targets.

Structural effect of phenyl ring compared to thiadiazole based adamantyl-sulfonamides on carbonic anhydrase inhibition., Biswas S, Carta F, Scozzafava A, McKenna R, Supuran CT, Bioorg Med Chem. 2013 Apr 15;21(8):2314-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2013.02.022. Epub, 2013 Feb 21. PMID:23490152

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.


[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.[1] [2] [3] [4] [5]


[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye.[6] [7]

About this Structure

4ilx is a 1 chain structure with sequence from Homo sapiens. Full crystallographic information is available from OCA.


  • Biswas S, Carta F, Scozzafava A, McKenna R, Supuran CT. Structural effect of phenyl ring compared to thiadiazole based adamantyl-sulfonamides on carbonic anhydrase inhibition. Bioorg Med Chem. 2013 Apr 15;21(8):2314-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2013.02.022. Epub, 2013 Feb 21. PMID:23490152 doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2013.02.022
  1. Venta PJ, Welty RJ, Johnson TM, Sly WS, Tashian RE. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome in a Belgian family is caused by a point mutation at an invariant histidine residue (107 His----Tyr): complete structure of the normal human CA II gene. Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Nov;49(5):1082-90. PMID:1928091
  2. Roth DE, Venta PJ, Tashian RE, Sly WS. Molecular basis of human carbonic anhydrase II deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Mar 1;89(5):1804-8. PMID:1542674
  3. Soda H, Yukizane S, Yoshida I, Koga Y, Aramaki S, Kato H. A point mutation in exon 3 (His 107-->Tyr) in two unrelated Japanese patients with carbonic anhydrase II deficiency with central nervous system involvement. Hum Genet. 1996 Apr;97(4):435-7. PMID:8834238
  4. Hu PY, Lim EJ, Ciccolella J, Strisciuglio P, Sly WS. Seven novel mutations in carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome identified by SSCP and direct sequencing analysis. Hum Mutat. 1997;9(5):383-7. PMID:9143915 doi:<383::AID-HUMU1>3.0.CO;2-5 10.1002/(SICI)1098-1004(1997)9:5<383::AID-HUMU1>3.0.CO;2-5
  5. Shah GN, Bonapace G, Hu PY, Strisciuglio P, Sly WS. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and brain calcification): novel mutations in CA2 identified by direct sequencing expand the opportunity for genotype-phenotype correlation. Hum Mutat. 2004 Sep;24(3):272. PMID:15300855 doi:10.1002/humu.9266
  6. Briganti F, Mangani S, Scozzafava A, Vernaglione G, Supuran CT. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes cyanamide hydration to urea: is it mimicking the physiological reaction? J Biol Inorg Chem. 1999 Oct;4(5):528-36. PMID:10550681
  7. Kim CY, Whittington DA, Chang JS, Liao J, May JA, Christianson DW. Structural aspects of isozyme selectivity in the binding of inhibitors to carbonic anhydrases II and IV. J Med Chem. 2002 Feb 14;45(4):888-93. PMID:11831900

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