Human Carbonic Anhydrase II Proton Transfer Double Mutant
[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.    
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. 
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Variants of human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) with amino acid replacements at residues in contact with water molecules in the active-site cavity have provided insights into the proton transfer rates in this protein environment. X-ray crystallography and (18)O exchange measured by membrane inlet mass spectrometry have been used to investigate structural and catalytic properties of variants of HCA II containing replacements of Tyr7 with Phe (Y7F) and Asn67 with Gln (N67Q). The rate constants for transfer of a proton from His64 to the zinc-bound hydroxide during catalysis were 4 and 9 mus(-1) for Y7F and Y7F/N67Q, respectively, compared with a value of 0.8 mus(-1) for wild-type HCA II. These higher values observed for Y7F and Y7F/N67Q HCA II could not be explained by differences in the values of the pK(a) of the proton donor (His64) and acceptor (zinc-bound hydroxide) or by the orientation of the side chain of the proton shuttle residue His64. They appeared to be associated with a reduced level of branching in the networks of hydrogen-bonded water molecules between proton shuttle residue His64 and the zinc-bound solvent molecule as observed in crystal structures at 1.5-1.6 A resolution. Moreover, Y7F/N67Q HCA II is unique among the variants studied in having a direct, hydrogen-bonded chain of water molecules between the zinc-bound solvent and N(epsilon) of His64. This study provides the clearest example to date of the relevance of ordered water structure to rate constants for proton transfer in catalysis by carbonic anhydrase.
Water Networks in Fast Proton Transfer during Catalysis by Human Carbonic Anhydrase II.,Mikulski R, West D, Sippel KH, Avvaru BS, Aggarwal M, Tu C, McKenna R, Silverman DN Biochemistry. 2012 Dec 18. PMID:23215152
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.