Crystal structure of human carbonic anhydrase isozyme II with the inhibitor.
[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.    
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. 
Publication Abstract from PubMed
A series of 4-substituted-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenezenesulfonamides were synthesized and their binding potencies as inhibitors of recombinant human carbonic anhydrase isozymes I, II, VII, XII, and XIII were determined by the thermal shift assay, isothermal titration calorimetry, and stop-flow CO2 hydration assay. All fluorinated benzenesulfonamides exhibited nanomolar binding potency toward tested CAs and fluorinated benzenesulfonamides posessed higher binding potency than non-fluorinated compounds. The crystal structures of 4-[(4,6-dimethylpyrimidin-2-yl)thio]-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzenesulfonamide in complex with CA II and CA XII, and 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4-[(2-hydroxyethyl)sulfonyl]benzenesulfonamide in complex with CA XIII were determined. The observed dissociation constants for several fluorinated compounds reached subnanomolar range for CA I isozyme. The affinity and the selectivity of the compounds towards tested isozymes are presented.
4-Substituted-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzenesulfonamides as inhibitors of carbonic anhydrases I, II, VII, XII, and XIII.,Dudutiene V, Zubriene A, Smirnov A, Gylyte J, Timm D, Manakova E, Grazulis S, Matulis D Bioorg Med Chem. 2013 Apr 1;21(7):2093-106. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2013.01.008. Epub , 2013 Jan 16. PMID:23394791
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.