4gbx

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4gbx, resolution 3.00Å ()
Ligands:
Gene: alpha chain, DMA, HLA-DM, HLA-DMA, MHC CLASS II MOLECULE, RING6 (Homo sapiens), beta chain, DMB, HLA-DMB, MHC Class II molecule HLA-DM, RING7 (Homo sapiens), alpha chain, HLA-DR1, HLA-DRA, HLA-DRA1, MHC Class II molecule (Homo sapiens), beta chain, HLA-DR1, HLA-DRB1, MHC Class II molecule (Homo sapiens)
Resources: FirstGlance, OCA, RCSB, PDBsum
Coordinates: save as pdb, mmCIF, xml


Contents

Crystal structure of an immune complex at pH 6.5

Publication Abstract from PubMed

HLA-DR molecules bind microbial peptides in an endosomal compartment and present them on the cell surface for CD4 T cell surveillance. HLA-DM plays a critical role in the endosomal peptide selection process. The structure of the HLA-DM-HLA-DR complex shows major rearrangements of the HLA-DR peptide-binding groove. Flipping of a tryptophan away from the HLA-DR1 P1 pocket enables major conformational changes that position hydrophobic HLA-DR residues into the P1 pocket. These conformational changes accelerate peptide dissociation and stabilize the empty HLA-DR peptide-binding groove. Initially, incoming peptides have access to only part of the HLA-DR groove and need to compete with HLA-DR residues for access to the P2 site and the hydrophobic P1 pocket. This energetic barrier creates a rapid and stringent selection process for the highest-affinity binders. Insertion of peptide residues into the P2 and P1 sites reverses the conformational changes, terminating selection through DM dissociation.

Crystal Structure of the HLA-DM-HLA-DR1 Complex Defines Mechanisms for Rapid Peptide Selection., Pos W, Sethi DK, Call MJ, Schulze MS, Anders AK, Pyrdol J, Wucherpfennig KW, Cell. 2012 Dec 21;151(7):1557-68. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2012.11.025. PMID:23260142

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.

Disease

[2B11_HUMAN] Genetic variation in HLA-DRB1 is a cause of susceptibility to sarcoidosis type 1 (SS1) [MIM:181000]. Sarcoidosis is an idiopathic, systemic, inflammatory disease characterized by the formation of immune granulomas in involved organs. Granulomas predominantly invade the lungs and the lymphatic system, but also skin, liver, spleen, eyes and other organs may be involved.[1]

Function

[2B11_HUMAN] Binds peptides derived from antigens that access the endocytic route of antigen presenting cells (APC) and presents them on the cell surface for recognition by the CD4 T-cells. The peptide binding cleft accommodates peptides of 10-30 residues. The peptides presented by MHC class II molecules are generated mostly by degradation of proteins that access the endocytic route; where they are processed by lysosomal proteases and other hydrolases. Exogenous antigens that have been endocytosed by the APC are thus readily available for presentation via MHC II molecules; and for this reason this antigen presentation pathway is usually referred to as exogenous. As membrane proteins on their way to degradation in lysosomes as part of their normal turn-over are also contained in the endosomal/lysosomal compartments; exogenous antigens must compete with those derived from endogenous components. Autophagy is also a source of endogenous peptides; autophagosomes constitutively fuse with MHC class II loading compartments. In addition to APCs; other cells of the gastrointestinal tract; such as epithelial cells; express MHC class II molecules and CD74 and act as APCs; which is an unusual trait of the GI tract. To produce a MHC class II molecule that presents an antigen; three MHC class II molecules (heterodimers of an alpha and a beta chain) associate with a CD74 trimer in the ER to form a heterononamer. Soon after the entry of this complex into the endosomal/lysosomal system where antigen processing occurs; CD74 undergoes a sequential degradation by various proteases; including CTSS and CTSL; leaving a small fragment termed CLIP (class-II-associated invariant chain peptide). The removal of CLIP is facilitated by HLA-DM via direct binding to the alpha-beta-CLIP complex so that CLIP is released. HLA-DM stabilizes MHC class II molecules until primary high affinity antigenic peptides are bound. The MHC II molecule bound to a peptide is then transported to the cell membrane surface. In B-cells; the interaction between HLA-DM and MHC class II molecules is regulated by HLA-DO. Primary dendritic cells (DCs) also to express HLA-DO. Lysosomal miroenvironment has been implicated in the regulation of antigen loading into MHC II molecules; increased acidification produces increased proteolysis and efficient peptide loading. [DMA_HUMAN] Plays a critical role in catalyzing the release of class II-associated invariant chain peptide (CLIP) from newly synthesized MHC class II molecules and freeing the peptide binding site for acquisition of antigenic peptides. In B-cells, the interaction between HLA-DM and MHC class II molecules is regulated by HLA-DO.[2][3][4] [DRA_HUMAN] Binds peptides derived from antigens that access the endocytic route of antigen presenting cells (APC) and presents them on the cell surface for recognition by the CD4 T-cells. The peptide binding cleft accommodates peptides of 10-30 residues. The peptides presented by MHC class II molecules are generated mostly by degradation of proteins that access the endocytic route, where they are processed by lysosomal proteases and other hydrolases. Exogenous antigens that have been endocytosed by the APC are thus readily available for presentation via MHC II molecules, and for this reason this antigen presentation pathway is usually referred to as exogenous. As membrane proteins on their way to degradation in lysosomes as part of their normal turn-over are also contained in the endosomal/lysosomal compartments, exogenous antigens must compete with those derived from endogenous components. Autophagy is also a source of endogenous peptides, autophagosomes constitutively fuse with MHC class II loading compartments. In addition to APCs, other cells of the gastrointestinal tract, such as epithelial cells, express MHC class II molecules and CD74 and act as APCs, which is an unusual trait of the GI tract. To produce a MHC class II molecule that presents an antigen, three MHC class II molecules (heterodimers of an alpha and a beta chain) associate with a CD74 trimer in the ER to form a heterononamer. Soon after the entry of this complex into the endosomal/lysosomal system where antigen processing occurs, CD74 undergoes a sequential degradation by various proteases, including CTSS and CTSL, leaving a small fragment termed CLIP (class-II-associated invariant chain peptide). The removal of CLIP is facilitated by HLA-DM via direct binding to the alpha-beta-CLIP complex so that CLIP is released. HLA-DM stabilizes MHC class II molecules until primary high affinity antigenic peptides are bound. The MHC II molecule bound to a peptide is then transported to the cell membrane surface. In B-cells, the interaction between HLA-DM and MHC class II molecules is regulated by HLA-DO. Primary dendritic cells (DCs) also to express HLA-DO. Lysosomal miroenvironment has been implicated in the regulation of antigen loading into MHC II molecules, increased acidification produces increased proteolysis and efficient peptide loading. [DMB_HUMAN] Plays a critical role in catalyzing the release of class II-associated invariant chain peptide (CLIP) from newly synthesized MHC class II molecules and freeing the peptide binding site for acquisition of antigenic peptides. In B-cells, the interaction between HLA-DM and MHC class II molecules is regulated by HLA-DO.[5][6][7]

About this Structure

4gbx is a 5 chain structure with sequence from Homo sapiens. Full crystallographic information is available from OCA.

Reference

  1. Rossman MD, Thompson B, Frederick M, Maliarik M, Iannuzzi MC, Rybicki BA, Pandey JP, Newman LS, Magira E, Beznik-Cizman B, Monos D. HLA-DRB1*1101: a significant risk factor for sarcoidosis in blacks and whites. Am J Hum Genet. 2003 Oct;73(4):720-35. Epub 2003 Aug 20. PMID:14508706 doi:10.1086/378097
  2. Weber DA, Evavold BD, Jensen PE. Enhanced dissociation of HLA-DR-bound peptides in the presence of HLA-DM. Science. 1996 Oct 25;274(5287):618-20. PMID:8849454
  3. Mosyak L, Zaller DM, Wiley DC. The structure of HLA-DM, the peptide exchange catalyst that loads antigen onto class II MHC molecules during antigen presentation. Immunity. 1998 Sep;9(3):377-83. PMID:9768757
  4. Nicholson MJ, Moradi B, Seth NP, Xing X, Cuny GD, Stein RL, Wucherpfennig KW. Small molecules that enhance the catalytic efficiency of HLA-DM. J Immunol. 2006 Apr 1;176(7):4208-20. PMID:16547258
  5. Weber DA, Evavold BD, Jensen PE. Enhanced dissociation of HLA-DR-bound peptides in the presence of HLA-DM. Science. 1996 Oct 25;274(5287):618-20. PMID:8849454
  6. Mosyak L, Zaller DM, Wiley DC. The structure of HLA-DM, the peptide exchange catalyst that loads antigen onto class II MHC molecules during antigen presentation. Immunity. 1998 Sep;9(3):377-83. PMID:9768757
  7. Nicholson MJ, Moradi B, Seth NP, Xing X, Cuny GD, Stein RL, Wucherpfennig KW. Small molecules that enhance the catalytic efficiency of HLA-DM. J Immunol. 2006 Apr 1;176(7):4208-20. PMID:16547258

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