Nucleophile recognition as an alternative inhibition mode for benzoic acid based carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.    
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. 
Publication Abstract from PubMed
A series of hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives have shown inhibitory activity against carbonic anhydrase (CA). X-ray crystallography shows that these molecules inhibit not by binding the active site metal ion but by strong hydrogen bonding to the metal-bound water nucleophile. The binding mode observed for these molecules is distinct when compared to other non-metal-binding CA inhibitors.
Nucleophile recognition as an alternative inhibition mode for benzoic acid based carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.,Martin DP, Cohen SM Chem Commun (Camb). 2012 May 28;48(43):5259-61. Epub 2012 Apr 24. PMID:22531842
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.