REFINED STRUCTURE OF HUMAN CARBONIC ANHYDRASE II AT 2.0 ANGSTROMS RESOLUTION
[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.    
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. 
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The structure of human erythrocytic carbonic anhydrase II has been refined by constrained and restrained structure-factor least-squares refinement at 2.0 A resolution. The conventional crystallographic R value is 17.3%. Of 167 solvent molecules associated with the protein, four are buried and stabilize secondary structure elements. The zinc ion is ligated to three histidyl residues and one water molecule in a nearly tetrahedral geometry. In addition to the zinc-bound water, seven more water molecules are identified in the active site. Assuming that Glu-106 is deprotonated at pH 8.5, some of the hydrogen bond donor-acceptor relations in the active site can be assigned and are described here in detail. The O gamma 1 atom of Thr-199 donates its proton to the O epsilon 1 atom of Glu-106 and can function as a hydrogen bond acceptor only in additional hydrogen bonds.
Refined structure of human carbonic anhydrase II at 2.0 A resolution.,Eriksson AE, Jones TA, Liljas A Proteins. 1988;4(4):274-82. PMID:3151019
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.