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4aph

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4aph, resolution 1.99Å ()
Ligands: , , , , ,
Related: 1o86, 1o8a, 1uze, 1uzf, 2c6f, 2c6n, 2iul, 2iux, 2wxw, 2x0b, 2xy9, 2xyd, 2ydm, 4aa1, 4apj


Resources: FirstGlance, OCA, RCSB, PDBsum
Coordinates: save as pdb, mmCIF, xml


Contents

Human angiotensin-converting enzyme in complex with angiotensin-II

Publication Abstract from PubMed

Angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE), a two-domain dipeptidylcarboxypeptidase, is a key regulator of blood pressure as a result of its critical role in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and kallikrein-kinin systems. Hence it is an important drug target in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. ACE is primarily known for its ability to cleave angiotensin I (Ang I) to the vasoactive octapeptide angiotensin II (Ang II), but is also able to cleave a number of other substrates including the vasodilator bradykinin and N-acetyl-Ser-Asp-Lys-Pro (Ac-SDKP), a physiological modulator of hematopoiesis. For the first time we provide a detailed biochemical and structural basis for the domain selectivity of the natural peptide inhibitors of ACE, bradykinin potentiating peptide b and Ang II. Moreover, Ang II showed selective competitive inhibition of the carboxy-terminal domain of human somatic ACE providing evidence for a regulatory role in the human renin-angiotensin system (RAS).

Molecular recognition and regulation of human angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) activity by natural inhibitory peptides., Masuyer G, Schwager SL, Sturrock ED, Isaac RE, Acharya KR, Sci Rep. 2012;2:717. doi: 10.1038/srep00717. Epub 2012 Oct 9. PMID:23056909

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.

Disease

[ACE_HUMAN] Genetic variations in ACE may be a cause of susceptibility to ischemic stroke (ISCHSTR) [MIM:601367]; also known as cerebrovascular accident or cerebral infarction. A stroke is an acute neurologic event leading to death of neural tissue of the brain and resulting in loss of motor, sensory and/or cognitive function. Ischemic strokes, resulting from vascular occlusion, is considered to be a highly complex disease consisting of a group of heterogeneous disorders with multiple genetic and environmental risk factors.[1] Defects in ACE are a cause of renal tubular dysgenesis (RTD) [MIM:267430]. RTD is an autosomal recessive severe disorder of renal tubular development characterized by persistent fetal anuria and perinatal death, probably due to pulmonary hypoplasia from early-onset oligohydramnios (the Potter phenotype).[2] Genetic variations in ACE are associated with susceptibility to microvascular complications of diabetes type 3 (MVCD3) [MIM:612624]. These are pathological conditions that develop in numerous tissues and organs as a consequence of diabetes mellitus. They include diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy leading to end-stage renal disease, and diabetic neuropathy. Diabetic retinopathy remains the major cause of new-onset blindness among diabetic adults. It is characterized by vascular permeability and increased tissue ischemia and angiogenesis. Defects in ACE are a cause of susceptibility to intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) [MIM:614519]. A pathological condition characterized by bleeding into one or both cerebral hemispheres including the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortex. It is often associated with hypertension and craniocerebral trauma. Intracerebral bleeding is a common cause of stroke.[3] [ANGT_HUMAN] Genetic variations in AGT are a cause of susceptibility to essential hypertension (EHT) [MIM:145500]. Essential hypertension is a condition in which blood pressure is consistently higher than normal with no identifiable cause. Defects in AGT are a cause of renal tubular dysgenesis (RTD) [MIM:267430]. RTD is an autosomal recessive severe disorder of renal tubular development characterized by persistent fetal anuria and perinatal death, probably due to pulmonary hypoplasia from early-onset oligohydramnios (the Potter phenotype).[4]

Function

[ACE_HUMAN] Converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II by release of the terminal His-Leu, this results in an increase of the vasoconstrictor activity of angiotensin. Also able to inactivate bradykinin, a potent vasodilator. Has also a glycosidase activity which releases GPI-anchored proteins from the membrane by cleaving the mannose linkage in the GPI moiety. [ANGT_HUMAN] Essential component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), a potent regulator of blood pressure, body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis.[5][6][7] Angiotensin-2: acts directly on vascular smooth muscle as a potent vasoconstrictor, affects cardiac contractility and heart rate through its action on the sympathetic nervous system, and alters renal sodium and water absorption through its ability to stimulate the zona glomerulosa cells of the adrenal cortex to synthesize and secrete aldosterone.[8][9][10] Angiotensin-3: stimulates aldosterone release.[11][12][13] Angiotensin 1-7: is a ligand for the G-protein coupled receptor MAS1 (By similarity). Has vasodilator and antidiuretic effects (By similarity). Has an antithrombotic effect that involves MAS1-mediated release of nitric oxide from platelets (By similarity).[14][15][16]

About this Structure

4aph is a 2 chain structure with sequence from Homo sapiens. Full crystallographic information is available from OCA.

See Also

Reference

  1. Casas JP, Hingorani AD, Bautista LE, Sharma P. Meta-analysis of genetic studies in ischemic stroke: thirty-two genes involving approximately 18,000 cases and 58,000 controls. Arch Neurol. 2004 Nov;61(11):1652-61. PMID:15534175 doi:61/11/1652
  2. Gribouval O, Gonzales M, Neuhaus T, Aziza J, Bieth E, Laurent N, Bouton JM, Feuillet F, Makni S, Ben Amar H, Laube G, Delezoide AL, Bouvier R, Dijoud F, Ollagnon-Roman E, Roume J, Joubert M, Antignac C, Gubler MC. Mutations in genes in the renin-angiotensin system are associated with autosomal recessive renal tubular dysgenesis. Nat Genet. 2005 Sep;37(9):964-8. Epub 2005 Aug 14. PMID:16116425 doi:ng1623
  3. Slowik A, Turaj W, Dziedzic T, Haefele A, Pera J, Malecki MT, Glodzik-Sobanska L, Szermer P, Figlewicz DA, Szczudlik A. DD genotype of ACE gene is a risk factor for intracerebral hemorrhage. Neurology. 2004 Jul 27;63(2):359-61. PMID:15277638
  4. Gribouval O, Gonzales M, Neuhaus T, Aziza J, Bieth E, Laurent N, Bouton JM, Feuillet F, Makni S, Ben Amar H, Laube G, Delezoide AL, Bouvier R, Dijoud F, Ollagnon-Roman E, Roume J, Joubert M, Antignac C, Gubler MC. Mutations in genes in the renin-angiotensin system are associated with autosomal recessive renal tubular dysgenesis. Nat Genet. 2005 Sep;37(9):964-8. Epub 2005 Aug 14. PMID:16116425 doi:ng1623
  5. Goodfriend TL, Peach MJ. Angiotensin III: (DES-Aspartic Acid-1)-Angiotensin II. Evidence and speculation for its role as an important agonist in the renin - angiotensin system. Circ Res. 1975 Jun;36(6 Suppl 1):38-48. PMID:1132082
  6. Weir MR, Dzau VJ. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system: a specific target for hypertension management. Am J Hypertens. 1999 Dec;12(12 Pt 3):205S-213S. PMID:10619573
  7. Jankowski V, Vanholder R, van der Giet M, Tolle M, Karadogan S, Gobom J, Furkert J, Oksche A, Krause E, Tran TN, Tepel M, Schuchardt M, Schluter H, Wiedon A, Beyermann M, Bader M, Todiras M, Zidek W, Jankowski J. Mass-spectrometric identification of a novel angiotensin peptide in human plasma. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007 Feb;27(2):297-302. Epub 2006 Nov 30. PMID:17138938 doi:10.1161/01.ATV.0000253889.09765.5f
  8. Goodfriend TL, Peach MJ. Angiotensin III: (DES-Aspartic Acid-1)-Angiotensin II. Evidence and speculation for its role as an important agonist in the renin - angiotensin system. Circ Res. 1975 Jun;36(6 Suppl 1):38-48. PMID:1132082
  9. Weir MR, Dzau VJ. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system: a specific target for hypertension management. Am J Hypertens. 1999 Dec;12(12 Pt 3):205S-213S. PMID:10619573
  10. Jankowski V, Vanholder R, van der Giet M, Tolle M, Karadogan S, Gobom J, Furkert J, Oksche A, Krause E, Tran TN, Tepel M, Schuchardt M, Schluter H, Wiedon A, Beyermann M, Bader M, Todiras M, Zidek W, Jankowski J. Mass-spectrometric identification of a novel angiotensin peptide in human plasma. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007 Feb;27(2):297-302. Epub 2006 Nov 30. PMID:17138938 doi:10.1161/01.ATV.0000253889.09765.5f
  11. Goodfriend TL, Peach MJ. Angiotensin III: (DES-Aspartic Acid-1)-Angiotensin II. Evidence and speculation for its role as an important agonist in the renin - angiotensin system. Circ Res. 1975 Jun;36(6 Suppl 1):38-48. PMID:1132082
  12. Weir MR, Dzau VJ. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system: a specific target for hypertension management. Am J Hypertens. 1999 Dec;12(12 Pt 3):205S-213S. PMID:10619573
  13. Jankowski V, Vanholder R, van der Giet M, Tolle M, Karadogan S, Gobom J, Furkert J, Oksche A, Krause E, Tran TN, Tepel M, Schuchardt M, Schluter H, Wiedon A, Beyermann M, Bader M, Todiras M, Zidek W, Jankowski J. Mass-spectrometric identification of a novel angiotensin peptide in human plasma. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007 Feb;27(2):297-302. Epub 2006 Nov 30. PMID:17138938 doi:10.1161/01.ATV.0000253889.09765.5f
  14. Goodfriend TL, Peach MJ. Angiotensin III: (DES-Aspartic Acid-1)-Angiotensin II. Evidence and speculation for its role as an important agonist in the renin - angiotensin system. Circ Res. 1975 Jun;36(6 Suppl 1):38-48. PMID:1132082
  15. Weir MR, Dzau VJ. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system: a specific target for hypertension management. Am J Hypertens. 1999 Dec;12(12 Pt 3):205S-213S. PMID:10619573
  16. Jankowski V, Vanholder R, van der Giet M, Tolle M, Karadogan S, Gobom J, Furkert J, Oksche A, Krause E, Tran TN, Tepel M, Schuchardt M, Schluter H, Wiedon A, Beyermann M, Bader M, Todiras M, Zidek W, Jankowski J. Mass-spectrometric identification of a novel angiotensin peptide in human plasma. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007 Feb;27(2):297-302. Epub 2006 Nov 30. PMID:17138938 doi:10.1161/01.ATV.0000253889.09765.5f

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