Human Carbonic Anhydrase II in complex with Acetylated Carbohydrate Sulfamates
[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.    
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. 
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are enzymes whose endogenous reaction is the reversible hydration of CO(2) to give HCO(3)(-) and a proton. CA are also known to exhibit weak and promiscuous esterase activity toward activated esters. Here, we report a series of findings obtained with a set of CA inhibitors that showed quite unexpectedly that the compounds were both inhibitors of CO(2) hydration and substrates for the esterase activity of CA. The compounds comprised a monosaccharide core with the C-6 primary hydroxyl group derivatized as a sulfamate (for CA recognition). The remaining four sugar hydroxyl groups were acylated. Using protein X-ray crystallography, the crystal structures of human CA II in complex with four of the sulfamate inhibitors were obtained. As expected, the four structures displayed the canonical CA protein-sulfamate interactions. Unexpectedly, a free hydroxyl group was observed at the anomeric center (C-1) rather than the parent C-1 acyl group. In addition, this hydroxyl group is observed axial to the carbohydrate ring while in the parent structure it is equatorial. A mechanism is proposed that accounts for this inversion of stereochemistry. For three of the inhibitors, the acyl groups at C-2 or at C-2 and C-3 were also absent with hydroxyl groups observed in their place and retention of stereochemistry. With the use of electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry (ESI-FTICR-MS), we observed directly the sequential loss of all four acyl groups from one of the carbohydrate-based sulfamates. For this compound, the inhibitor and substrate binding mode were further analyzed using free energy calculations. These calculations suggested that the parent compound binds almost exclusively as a substrate. To conclude, we have demonstrated that acylated carbohydrate-based sulfamates are simultaneously inhibitor and substrate of human CA II. Our results suggest that, initially, the substrate binding mode dominates, but following hydrolysis, the ligand can also bind as a pure inhibitor thereby competing with the substrate binding mode.
Promiscuity of Carbonic Anhydrase II. Unexpected Ester Hydrolysis of Carbohydrate-Based Sulfamate Inhibitors.,Lopez M, Vu H, Wang CK, Wolf MG, Groenhof G, Innocenti A, Supuran CT, Poulsen SA J Am Chem Soc. 2011 Oct 19. PMID:21958118
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.