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3rge, resolution 2.10Å ()
Gene: CA2 (Homo sapiens)
Activity: Carbonate dehydratase, with EC number
Related: 3rg3, 3rg4

Resources: FirstGlance, OCA, RCSB, PDBsum
Coordinates: save as pdb, mmCIF, xml


Crystal structure of the W5H mutant of human carbonic anhydrase II

Publication Abstract from PubMed

The tryptophan residue Trp5, highly conserved in the alpha class of carbonic anhydrases including human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II), is positioned at the entrance of the active site cavity and forms a pi-stacking interaction with the imidazole ring of the proton shuttle His64 in its outward orientation. We have observed that replacement of Trp5 in HCA II caused significant structural changes, as determined by X-ray diffraction, in the conformation of 11 residues at the N-terminus and in the orientation of the proton shuttle residue His64. Most significantly, two variants W5H and W5E HCA II had His64 predominantly outward in orientation, while W5F and wild type showed the superposition of both outward and inward orientations in crystal structures. Although Trp5 influences the orientation of the proton shuttle His64, this orientation had no significant effect on the rate constant for proton transfer near 1mus(-1), determined by exchange of (18)O between CO(2) and water measured by mass spectrometry. The apparent values of the pK(a) of the zinc-bound water and the proton shuttle residue suggest that different active-site conformations influence the two stages of catalysis, the proton transfer stage and the interconversion of CO(2) and bicarbonate.

Structure and catalysis by carbonic anhydrase II: role of active-site tryptophan 5., Mikulski R, Domsic JF, Ling G, Tu C, Robbins AH, Silverman DN, McKenna R, Arch Biochem Biophys. 2011 Dec 15;516(2):97-102. doi: 10.1016/j.abb.2011.09.011. , Epub 2011 Oct 5. PMID:22001224

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.


[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.[1][2][3][4][5]


[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye.[6][7]

About this Structure

3rge is a 1 chain structure with sequence from Homo sapiens. Full crystallographic information is available from OCA.

See Also


  • Mikulski R, Domsic JF, Ling G, Tu C, Robbins AH, Silverman DN, McKenna R. Structure and catalysis by carbonic anhydrase II: role of active-site tryptophan 5. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2011 Dec 15;516(2):97-102. doi: 10.1016/j.abb.2011.09.011. , Epub 2011 Oct 5. PMID:22001224 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.abb.2011.09.011
  1. Venta PJ, Welty RJ, Johnson TM, Sly WS, Tashian RE. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome in a Belgian family is caused by a point mutation at an invariant histidine residue (107 His----Tyr): complete structure of the normal human CA II gene. Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Nov;49(5):1082-90. PMID:1928091
  2. Roth DE, Venta PJ, Tashian RE, Sly WS. Molecular basis of human carbonic anhydrase II deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Mar 1;89(5):1804-8. PMID:1542674
  3. Soda H, Yukizane S, Yoshida I, Koga Y, Aramaki S, Kato H. A point mutation in exon 3 (His 107-->Tyr) in two unrelated Japanese patients with carbonic anhydrase II deficiency with central nervous system involvement. Hum Genet. 1996 Apr;97(4):435-7. PMID:8834238
  4. Hu PY, Lim EJ, Ciccolella J, Strisciuglio P, Sly WS. Seven novel mutations in carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome identified by SSCP and direct sequencing analysis. Hum Mutat. 1997;9(5):383-7. PMID:9143915 doi:<383::AID-HUMU1>3.0.CO;2-5 10.1002/(SICI)1098-1004(1997)9:5<383::AID-HUMU1>3.0.CO;2-5
  5. Shah GN, Bonapace G, Hu PY, Strisciuglio P, Sly WS. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and brain calcification): novel mutations in CA2 identified by direct sequencing expand the opportunity for genotype-phenotype correlation. Hum Mutat. 2004 Sep;24(3):272. PMID:15300855 doi:10.1002/humu.9266
  6. Briganti F, Mangani S, Scozzafava A, Vernaglione G, Supuran CT. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes cyanamide hydration to urea: is it mimicking the physiological reaction? J Biol Inorg Chem. 1999 Oct;4(5):528-36. PMID:10550681
  7. Kim CY, Whittington DA, Chang JS, Liao J, May JA, Christianson DW. Structural aspects of isozyme selectivity in the binding of inhibitors to carbonic anhydrases II and IV. J Med Chem. 2002 Feb 14;45(4):888-93. PMID:11831900

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