Human CAII bound to N-(4-sulfamoylphenyl)-2-(thiophen-2-yl) acetamide
[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.    
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. 
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The X-ray crystal structures of the adducts of human carbonic anhydrase (hCA, EC 184.108.40.206) II complexed with two aromatic sulfonamides incorporating 2-thienylacetamido moieties are reported here. Although, the two inhibitors only differ by the presence of an additional 3-fluoro substituent on the 4-amino-benzenesulfonamide scaffold, their inhibition profiles against the cytosolic isoforms hCA I, II, III, VII and XIII are quite different. These differences were rationalized based on the obtained X-ray crystal structures, and their comparison with other sulfonamide CA inhibitors with clinical applications, such as acetazolamide, methazolamide and dichlorophenamide. The conformations of the 2-thienylacetamido tails in the hCA II adducts of the two sulfonamides were highly different, although the benzenesulfonamide parts were superimposable. Specific interactions between structurally different inhibitors and amino acid residues present only in some considered isoforms have thus been evidenced. These findings can explain the high affinity of the 2-thienylacetamido benzenesulfonamides for some pharmacologically relevant CAs (i.e., isoforms II and VII) being also useful to design high affinity, more selective sulfonamide inhibitors of various CAs.
Conformational variability of different sulfonamide inhibitors with thienyl-acetamido moieties attributes to differential binding in the active site of cytosolic human carbonic anhydrase isoforms.,Biswas S, Aggarwal M, Guzel O, Scozzafava A, McKenna R, Supuran CT Bioorg Med Chem. 2011 Jun 15;19(12):3732-8. Epub 2011 May 10. PMID:21620713
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.