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|3qx5, resolution 1.35Å ()|
|Ligands:||, , , ,|
|Related:||3f68, 1k22, 1k1o, 3p17, 3eq0, 3qto, 3qtv, 3qwc|
Thrombin Inhibition by Pyridin Derivatives
In the present study, we investigate the impact of a tightly bound water molecule on ligand binding in the S1 pocket of thrombin. The S1 pocket contains a deeply buried deprotonated aspartate residue (Asp189) that is, due to its charged state, well hydrated in the uncomplexed state. We systematically studied the importance of this water molecule by evaluating a series of ligands that contains pyridine-type P1 side chains that could potentially alter the binding properties of this water molecule. All of the pyridine derivatives retain the original hydration state albeit sometimes with a slight perturbance. In order to prevent a direct H-bond formation with Asp189, and to create a permanent positive charge on the P1 side chain that is positioned adjacent to the Asp189 carboxylate anion, we methylated the pyridine nitrogen. This methylation resulted in displacement of water but was accompanied by a loss in binding affinity. Quantum chemical calculations of the ligand solvation free energy showed that the positively charged methylpyridinium derivatives suffer a large penalty of desolvation upon binding. Consequently, they have a substantially less favorable enthalpy of binding. In addition to the ligand desolvation penalty, the hydration shell around Asp189 has to be overcome, which is achieved in nearly all pyridinium derivatives. Only for the ortho derivative is a partial population of a water next to Asp189 found. Possibly, the gain of electrostatic interactions between the charged P1 side chain and Asp189 helps to compensate for the desolvation penalty. In all uncharged pyridine derivatives, the solvation shell remains next to Asp189, partly mediating interactions between ligand and protein. In the case of the para-pyridine derivative, a strongly disordered cluster of water sites is observed between ligand and Asp189.
Impact of ligand and protein desolvation on ligand binding to the S1 pocket of thrombin., Biela A, Khayat M, Tan H, Kong J, Heine A, Hangauer D, Klebe G, J Mol Biol. 2012 May 18;418(5):350-66. Epub 2012 Feb 21. PMID:22366545
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
[THRB_HUMAN] Defects in F2 are the cause of factor II deficiency (FA2D) [MIM:613679]. It is a very rare blood coagulation disorder characterized by mucocutaneous bleeding symptoms. The severity of the bleeding manifestations correlates with blood factor II levels. Genetic variations in F2 may be a cause of susceptibility to ischemic stroke (ISCHSTR) [MIM:601367]; also known as cerebrovascular accident or cerebral infarction. A stroke is an acute neurologic event leading to death of neural tissue of the brain and resulting in loss of motor, sensory and/or cognitive function. Ischemic strokes, resulting from vascular occlusion, is considered to be a highly complex disease consisting of a group of heterogeneous disorders with multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. Defects in F2 are the cause of thrombophilia due to thrombin defect (THPH1) [MIM:188050]. It is a multifactorial disorder of hemostasis characterized by abnormal platelet aggregation in response to various agents and recurrent thrombi formation. Note=A common genetic variation in the 3-prime untranslated region of the prothrombin gene is associated with elevated plasma prothrombin levels and an increased risk of venous thrombosis. Defects in F2 are associated with susceptibility to pregnancy loss, recurrent, type 2 (RPRGL2) [MIM:614390]. A common complication of pregnancy, resulting in spontaneous abortion before the fetus has reached viability. The term includes all miscarriages from the time of conception until 24 weeks of gestation. Recurrent pregnancy loss is defined as 3 or more consecutive spontaneous abortions.
[THRB_HUMAN] Thrombin, which cleaves bonds after Arg and Lys, converts fibrinogen to fibrin and activates factors V, VII, VIII, XIII, and, in complex with thrombomodulin, protein C. Functions in blood homeostasis, inflammation and wound healing. [HIRV2_HIRME] Hirudin is a potent thrombin-specific protease inhibitor. It forms a stable non-covalent complex with alpha-thrombin, thereby abolishing its ability to cleave fibrinogen.
About this Structure
- Biela A, Khayat M, Tan H, Kong J, Heine A, Hangauer D, Klebe G. Impact of ligand and protein desolvation on ligand binding to the S1 pocket of thrombin. J Mol Biol. 2012 May 18;418(5):350-66. Epub 2012 Feb 21. PMID:22366545 doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2012.01.054
- ↑ Wang W, Fu Q, Zhou R, Wu W, Ding Q, Hu Y, Wang X, Wang H, Wang Z. Prothrombin Shanghai: hypoprothrombinaemia caused by substitution of Gla29 by Gly. Haemophilia. 2004 Jan;10(1):94-7. PMID:14962227
- ↑ Board PG, Shaw DC. Determination of the amino acid substitution in human prothrombin type 3 (157 Glu leads to Lys) and the localization of a third thrombin cleavage site. Br J Haematol. 1983 Jun;54(2):245-54. PMID:6405779
- ↑ Rabiet MJ, Furie BC, Furie B. Molecular defect of prothrombin Barcelona. Substitution of cysteine for arginine at residue 273. J Biol Chem. 1986 Nov 15;261(32):15045-8. PMID:3771562
- ↑ Miyata T, Morita T, Inomoto T, Kawauchi S, Shirakami A, Iwanaga S. Prothrombin Tokushima, a replacement of arginine-418 by tryptophan that impairs the fibrinogen clotting activity of derived thrombin Tokushima. Biochemistry. 1987 Feb 24;26(4):1117-22. PMID:3567158
- ↑ Inomoto T, Shirakami A, Kawauchi S, Shigekiyo T, Saito S, Miyoshi K, Morita T, Iwanaga S. Prothrombin Tokushima: characterization of dysfunctional thrombin derived from a variant of human prothrombin. Blood. 1987 Feb;69(2):565-9. PMID:3801671
- ↑ Henriksen RA, Mann KG. Identification of the primary structural defect in the dysthrombin thrombin Quick I: substitution of cysteine for arginine-382. Biochemistry. 1988 Dec 27;27(26):9160-5. PMID:3242619
- ↑ Henriksen RA, Mann KG. Substitution of valine for glycine-558 in the congenital dysthrombin thrombin Quick II alters primary substrate specificity. Biochemistry. 1989 Mar 7;28(5):2078-82. PMID:2719946
- ↑ Miyata T, Aruga R, Umeyama H, Bezeaud A, Guillin MC, Iwanaga S. Prothrombin Salakta: substitution of glutamic acid-466 by alanine reduces the fibrinogen clotting activity and the esterase activity. Biochemistry. 1992 Aug 25;31(33):7457-62. PMID:1354985
- ↑ Morishita E, Saito M, Kumabashiri I, Asakura H, Matsuda T, Yamaguchi K. Prothrombin Himi: a compound heterozygote for two dysfunctional prothrombin molecules (Met-337-->Thr and Arg-388-->His). Blood. 1992 Nov 1;80(9):2275-80. PMID:1421398
- ↑ Iwahana H, Yoshimoto K, Shigekiyo T, Shirakami A, Saito S, Itakura M. Detection of a single base substitution of the gene for prothrombin Tokushima. The application of PCR-SSCP for the genetic and molecular analysis of dysprothrombinemia. Int J Hematol. 1992 Feb;55(1):93-100. PMID:1349838
- ↑ James HL, Kim DJ, Zheng DQ, Girolami A. Prothrombin Padua I: incomplete activation due to an amino acid substitution at a factor Xa cleavage site. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 1994 Oct;5(5):841-4. PMID:7865694
- ↑ Degen SJ, McDowell SA, Sparks LM, Scharrer I. Prothrombin Frankfurt: a dysfunctional prothrombin characterized by substitution of Glu-466 by Ala. Thromb Haemost. 1995 Feb;73(2):203-9. PMID:7792730
- ↑ Casas JP, Hingorani AD, Bautista LE, Sharma P. Meta-analysis of genetic studies in ischemic stroke: thirty-two genes involving approximately 18,000 cases and 58,000 controls. Arch Neurol. 2004 Nov;61(11):1652-61. PMID:15534175 doi:61/11/1652
- ↑ Pihusch R, Buchholz T, Lohse P, Rubsamen H, Rogenhofer N, Hasbargen U, Hiller E, Thaler CJ. Thrombophilic gene mutations and recurrent spontaneous abortion: prothrombin mutation increases the risk in the first trimester. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2001 Aug;46(2):124-31. PMID:11506076
- ↑ Glenn KC, Frost GH, Bergmann JS, Carney DH. Synthetic peptides bind to high-affinity thrombin receptors and modulate thrombin mitogenesis. Pept Res. 1988 Nov-Dec;1(2):65-73. PMID:2856554