Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor: C1 family
[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.    
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. 
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Several aromatic/heterocyclic sulfonamide scaffolds have been used to synthesize compounds incorporating NO-donating moieties of the nitrate ester type, which have been investigated for the inhibition of five physiologically relevant human carbonic anhydrase (hCA, EC 220.127.116.11) isoforms: hCA I (offtarget), II, IV and XII (antiglaucoma targets) and IX (antitumor target). Some of the new compounds showed effective in vitro inhibition of the target isoforms involved in glaucoma, and the X-ray crystal structure of one of them revealed factors associated with the marked inhibitory activity. In an animal model of ocular hypertension, one of the new compounds was twice more effective than dorzolamide in reducing elevated intraocular pressure characteristic of this disease, anticipating their potential for the treatment of glaucoma.
Synthesis and crystallographic analysis of new sulfonamides incorporating NO-donating moieties with potent antiglaucoma action.,Mincione F, Benedini F, Biondi S, Cecchi A, Temperini C, Formicola G, Pacileo I, Scozzafava A, Masini E, Supuran CT Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2011 Jun 1;21(11):3216-21. Epub 2011 Apr 20. PMID:21549597
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.