Crystal structure of human carbonic anhydrase II in complex with a 1,3,5-triazine-substituted benzenesulfonamide inhibitor
[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.    
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. 
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Reaction of cyanuryl chloride with d,l-amino acids and amino alcohols afforded a new series of triazinyl-substituted benzenesulfonamides incorporating amino acyl/hydroxyalkyl-amino moieties. Inhibition studies of physiologically relevant human carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 188.8.131.52) isoforms, such as CA I, II, IX, XII and XIV with these compounds are reported. They showed moderate-weak inhibition of the cytosolic, offtarget isozymes CA I and II, but many of them were low nanomolar inhibitors of the transmembrane, tumor-associated CA IX and XII (and also of CA XIV). The X-ray crystal structure of two of these compounds in adduct with CA II allowed us to understand the features associated with this strong inhibitory properties and possibly also their selectivity. Two of these compounds were also investigated for the inhibition of other human isoforms, that is, hCA IV, VA, VB, VI, VII and XIII, as well as inhibitors of the fungal pathogenic CAs Nce103 (Candida albicans) and Can2 (Cryptococcus neoformans), showing interesting activity. The 1,3,5-triazinyl-substituted benzenesulfonamides constitute thus a class of compounds with great potential for obtaining inhibitors targeting both alpha-class mammalian, tumor-associated, and beta-class from pathogenic organisms CAs.
Sulfonamides incorporating 1,3,5-triazine moieties selectively and potently inhibit carbonic anhydrase transmembrane isoforms IX, XII and XIV over cytosolic isoforms I and II: Solution and X-ray crystallographic studies.,Carta F, Garaj V, Maresca A, Wagner J, Avvaru BS, Robbins AH, Scozzafava A, McKenna R, Supuran CT Bioorg Med Chem. 2011 May 15;19(10):3105-19. Epub 2011 Apr 6. PMID:21515057
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.