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3kon, resolution 1.50Å ()
Activity: Carbonate dehydratase, with EC number
Related: 3koi, 3kok, 3ks3

Resources: FirstGlance, OCA, RCSB, PDBsum
Coordinates: save as pdb, mmCIF, xml


Crystal structure of cobalt (II) human carbonic anhydrase II at pH 11.0

Publication Abstract from PubMed

The visible absorption of crystals of Co(II)-substituted human carbonic anhydrase II (Co(II)-HCA II) were measured over a pH range of 6.0-11.0 giving an estimate of pK(a) 8.4 for the ionization of the metal-bound water in the crystal. This is higher by about 1.2 pK(a) units than the pK(a) near 7.2 for Co(II)-CA II in solution. This effect is attributed to a nonspecific ionic strength effect of 1.4M citrate in the precipitant solution used in the crystal growth. A pK(a) of 8.3 for the aqueous ligand of the cobalt was measured for Co(II)-HCA II in solution containing 0.8M citrate. Citrate is not an inhibitor of the catalytic activity of Co(II)-HCA II and was not observed in crystal structures. The X-ray structures at 1.5-1.6A resolution of Co(II)-HCA II were determined for crystals prepared at pH 6.0, 8.5 and 11.0 and revealed no conformational changes of amino-acid side chains as a result of the use of citrate. However, the studies of Co(II)-HCA II did reveal a change in metal coordination from tetrahedral at pH 11 to a coordination consistent with a mixed population of both tetrahedral and penta-coordinate at pH 8.5 to an octahedral geometry characteristic of the oxidized enzyme Co(III)-HCA II at pH 6.0.

Comparison of solution and crystal properties of Co(II)-substituted human carbonic anhydrase II., Avvaru BS, Arenas DJ, Tu C, Tanner DB, McKenna R, Silverman DN, Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010 Oct 1;502(1):53-59. Epub 2010 Jul 14. PMID:20637176

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.


[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.[1][2][3][4][5]


[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye.[6][7]

About this Structure

3kon is a 1 chain structure with sequence from Homo sapiens. Full crystallographic information is available from OCA.

See Also


  • Avvaru BS, Arenas DJ, Tu C, Tanner DB, McKenna R, Silverman DN. Comparison of solution and crystal properties of Co(II)-substituted human carbonic anhydrase II. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010 Oct 1;502(1):53-59. Epub 2010 Jul 14. PMID:20637176 doi:10.1016/j.abb.2010.07.010
  1. Venta PJ, Welty RJ, Johnson TM, Sly WS, Tashian RE. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome in a Belgian family is caused by a point mutation at an invariant histidine residue (107 His----Tyr): complete structure of the normal human CA II gene. Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Nov;49(5):1082-90. PMID:1928091
  2. Roth DE, Venta PJ, Tashian RE, Sly WS. Molecular basis of human carbonic anhydrase II deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Mar 1;89(5):1804-8. PMID:1542674
  3. Soda H, Yukizane S, Yoshida I, Koga Y, Aramaki S, Kato H. A point mutation in exon 3 (His 107-->Tyr) in two unrelated Japanese patients with carbonic anhydrase II deficiency with central nervous system involvement. Hum Genet. 1996 Apr;97(4):435-7. PMID:8834238
  4. Hu PY, Lim EJ, Ciccolella J, Strisciuglio P, Sly WS. Seven novel mutations in carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome identified by SSCP and direct sequencing analysis. Hum Mutat. 1997;9(5):383-7. PMID:9143915 doi:<383::AID-HUMU1>3.0.CO;2-5 10.1002/(SICI)1098-1004(1997)9:5<383::AID-HUMU1>3.0.CO;2-5
  5. Shah GN, Bonapace G, Hu PY, Strisciuglio P, Sly WS. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and brain calcification): novel mutations in CA2 identified by direct sequencing expand the opportunity for genotype-phenotype correlation. Hum Mutat. 2004 Sep;24(3):272. PMID:15300855 doi:10.1002/humu.9266
  6. Briganti F, Mangani S, Scozzafava A, Vernaglione G, Supuran CT. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes cyanamide hydration to urea: is it mimicking the physiological reaction? J Biol Inorg Chem. 1999 Oct;4(5):528-36. PMID:10550681
  7. Kim CY, Whittington DA, Chang JS, Liao J, May JA, Christianson DW. Structural aspects of isozyme selectivity in the binding of inhibitors to carbonic anhydrases II and IV. J Med Chem. 2002 Feb 14;45(4):888-93. PMID:11831900

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