Human carbonic anhydrase II in complex with (2,3,4,6-Tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-galactopyranosyl) -(1-4)-1,2,3,6-tetra-O-acetyl-1-thio-beta-D-glucopyranosylsulfonamide
[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.    
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. 
Publication Abstract from PubMed
In this paper, we present a new class of carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor that was designed to selectively target the extracellular domains of the cancer-relevant CA isozymes. The aromatic moiety of the classical zinc binding sulfonamide CA inhibitors is absent from these compounds and instead they incorporate a hydrophilic mono- or disaccharide fragment directly attached to the sulfonamide group to give S-glycosyl primary sulfonamides (1-10). The inhibition properties of these compounds at the physiologically abundant human CA isozymes I and II and cancer-associated IX and XII were determined, and all compounds had moderate potency with K(i)s in the micromolar range. We present the crystal structures of anomeric sulfonamides 4, 7, and 10 and the sugar sulfamate drug topiramate in complex with human recombinant CA II. From these structures, we have obtained valuable insights into ligand-protein interactions of these novel carbohydrate-based sulfonamides with CA.
S-glycosyl primary sulfonamides--a new structural class for selective inhibition of cancer-associated carbonic anhydrases.,Lopez M, Paul B, Hofmann A, Morizzi J, Wu QK, Charman SA, Innocenti A, Vullo D, Supuran CT, Poulsen SA J Med Chem. 2009 Oct 22;52(20):6421-32. PMID:19827837
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.