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|3f8e, resolution 2.00Å ()|
|Ligands:||, , ,|
Coumarins are a novel class of suicide carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
The X-ray crystal structure of the adduct between the zinc metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase II (CA, EC 184.108.40.206) with the recently discovered natural product coumarin derivative 6-(1S-hydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-7-methoxy-2H-chromen-2-one showed the coumarin hydrolysis product, a cis-2-hydroxy-cinnamic acid derivative, and not the parent coumarin, bound within the enzyme active site. The bound inhibitor exhibits an extended, two-arm conformation that effectively plugs the entrance to the enzyme active site with no interactions with the catalytically crucial zinc ion. The inhibitor is sandwiched between Phe131, with which it makes an edge-to-face stacking, and Asn67/Glu238sym, with which it makes several polar and hydrogen bonding interactions. This unusual binding mode, with no interactions between the inhibitor molecule and the active site metal ion is previously unobserved for this enzyme class and presents a new opportunity for future drug design campaigns to target a mode of inhibition that differs substantially from classical inhibitors such as the clinically used sulfonamides and sulfamates. Several structurally simple coumarin scaffolds were also shown to inhibit all 13 catalytically active mammalian CA isoforms, with inhibition constants ranging from nanomolar to millimolar. The inhibition is time dependent, with maximum inhibition being observed after 6 h.
Non-Zinc Mediated Inhibition of Carbonic Anhydrases: Coumarins Are a New Class of Suicide Inhibitors (#)., Maresca A, Temperini C, Vu H, Pham NB, Poulsen SA, Scozzafava A, Quinn RJ, Supuran CT, J Am Chem Soc. 2009 Feb 10. PMID:19206230
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye.
About this Structure
- Maresca A, Temperini C, Vu H, Pham NB, Poulsen SA, Scozzafava A, Quinn RJ, Supuran CT. Non-Zinc Mediated Inhibition of Carbonic Anhydrases: Coumarins Are a New Class of Suicide Inhibitors (#). J Am Chem Soc. 2009 Feb 10. PMID:19206230 doi:10.1021/ja809683v
- ↑ Venta PJ, Welty RJ, Johnson TM, Sly WS, Tashian RE. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome in a Belgian family is caused by a point mutation at an invariant histidine residue (107 His----Tyr): complete structure of the normal human CA II gene. Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Nov;49(5):1082-90. PMID:1928091
- ↑ Roth DE, Venta PJ, Tashian RE, Sly WS. Molecular basis of human carbonic anhydrase II deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Mar 1;89(5):1804-8. PMID:1542674
- ↑ Soda H, Yukizane S, Yoshida I, Koga Y, Aramaki S, Kato H. A point mutation in exon 3 (His 107-->Tyr) in two unrelated Japanese patients with carbonic anhydrase II deficiency with central nervous system involvement. Hum Genet. 1996 Apr;97(4):435-7. PMID:8834238
- ↑ Hu PY, Lim EJ, Ciccolella J, Strisciuglio P, Sly WS. Seven novel mutations in carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome identified by SSCP and direct sequencing analysis. Hum Mutat. 1997;9(5):383-7. PMID:9143915 doi:<383::AID-HUMU1>3.0.CO;2-5 10.1002/(SICI)1098-1004(1997)9:5<383::AID-HUMU1>3.0.CO;2-5
- ↑ Shah GN, Bonapace G, Hu PY, Strisciuglio P, Sly WS. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and brain calcification): novel mutations in CA2 identified by direct sequencing expand the opportunity for genotype-phenotype correlation. Hum Mutat. 2004 Sep;24(3):272. PMID:15300855 doi:10.1002/humu.9266
- ↑ Briganti F, Mangani S, Scozzafava A, Vernaglione G, Supuran CT. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes cyanamide hydration to urea: is it mimicking the physiological reaction? J Biol Inorg Chem. 1999 Oct;4(5):528-36. PMID:10550681
- ↑ Kim CY, Whittington DA, Chang JS, Liao J, May JA, Christianson DW. Structural aspects of isozyme selectivity in the binding of inhibitors to carbonic anhydrases II and IV. J Med Chem. 2002 Feb 14;45(4):888-93. PMID:11831900