[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye.
An activation study of mammalian carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 22.214.171.124) isoforms I-XIV with D- and L-tryptophan has been performed both by means of kinetic and X-ray crystallographic techniques. These compounds show a time dependent activity against isozyme CA II, with activation constants of 1.13 microM for L-Trp and 0.37 microM for D-Trp, respectively, after 24 h of incubation between enzyme and activator. The high resolution X-ray crystal structure of the hCA II-D-Trp adduct revealed the activator to bind in a totally unprecedented way to the enzyme active site as compared to histamine, L-/D-Phe, L-/D-His or L-adrenaline. D-Trp is anchored at the edge of the CA II active site entrance, strongly interacting with amino acid residues Asp130, Phe131 and Gly132 as well as with a loop of a second symmetry related protein molecule from the asymmetric unit, by means of hydrogen bonds and several weak van der Waals interactions involving Glu234, Gly235, Glu236 and Glu238. Thus, a second activator binding site (B) within the CA II cavity has been detected, where only D-Trp was shown so far to bind, in addition to the activator binding site A, in which histamine, L-/D-Phe, and L-/D-His are bound. These findings explain the strong affinity of D-Trp for CA II and may be useful for designing novel classes of CA activators by using this compound as lead molecule.
Carbonic anhydrase activators: kinetic and X-ray crystallographic study for the interaction of D- and L-tryptophan with the mammalian isoforms I-XIV.,Temperini C, Innocenti A, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT Bioorg Med Chem. 2008 Sep 15;16(18):8373-8. Epub 2008 Aug 26. PMID:18774300
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
↑ Venta PJ, Welty RJ, Johnson TM, Sly WS, Tashian RE. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome in a Belgian family is caused by a point mutation at an invariant histidine residue (107 His----Tyr): complete structure of the normal human CA II gene. Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Nov;49(5):1082-90. PMID:1928091
↑ Roth DE, Venta PJ, Tashian RE, Sly WS. Molecular basis of human carbonic anhydrase II deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Mar 1;89(5):1804-8. PMID:1542674
↑ Soda H, Yukizane S, Yoshida I, Koga Y, Aramaki S, Kato H. A point mutation in exon 3 (His 107-->Tyr) in two unrelated Japanese patients with carbonic anhydrase II deficiency with central nervous system involvement. Hum Genet. 1996 Apr;97(4):435-7. PMID:8834238
↑ Shah GN, Bonapace G, Hu PY, Strisciuglio P, Sly WS. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and brain calcification): novel mutations in CA2 identified by direct sequencing expand the opportunity for genotype-phenotype correlation. Hum Mutat. 2004 Sep;24(3):272. PMID:15300855 doi:10.1002/humu.9266
↑ Briganti F, Mangani S, Scozzafava A, Vernaglione G, Supuran CT. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes cyanamide hydration to urea: is it mimicking the physiological reaction? J Biol Inorg Chem. 1999 Oct;4(5):528-36. PMID:10550681
↑ Kim CY, Whittington DA, Chang JS, Liao J, May JA, Christianson DW. Structural aspects of isozyme selectivity in the binding of inhibitors to carbonic anhydrases II and IV. J Med Chem. 2002 Feb 14;45(4):888-93. PMID:11831900
↑ Temperini C, Innocenti A, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT. Carbonic anhydrase activators: kinetic and X-ray crystallographic study for the interaction of D- and L-tryptophan with the mammalian isoforms I-XIV. Bioorg Med Chem. 2008 Sep 15;16(18):8373-8. Epub 2008 Aug 26. PMID:18774300 doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2008.08.043