Carbonic anhydrase activators: Kinetic and X-ray crystallographic study for the interaction of d- and l-tryptophan with the mammalian isoforms I-XIV
[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.    
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. 
Publication Abstract from PubMed
An activation study of mammalian carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 126.96.36.199) isoforms I-XIV with D- and L-tryptophan has been performed both by means of kinetic and X-ray crystallographic techniques. These compounds show a time dependent activity against isozyme CA II, with activation constants of 1.13 microM for L-Trp and 0.37 microM for D-Trp, respectively, after 24 h of incubation between enzyme and activator. The high resolution X-ray crystal structure of the hCA II-D-Trp adduct revealed the activator to bind in a totally unprecedented way to the enzyme active site as compared to histamine, L-/D-Phe, L-/D-His or L-adrenaline. D-Trp is anchored at the edge of the CA II active site entrance, strongly interacting with amino acid residues Asp130, Phe131 and Gly132 as well as with a loop of a second symmetry related protein molecule from the asymmetric unit, by means of hydrogen bonds and several weak van der Waals interactions involving Glu234, Gly235, Glu236 and Glu238. Thus, a second activator binding site (B) within the CA II cavity has been detected, where only D-Trp was shown so far to bind, in addition to the activator binding site A, in which histamine, L-/D-Phe, and L-/D-His are bound. These findings explain the strong affinity of D-Trp for CA II and may be useful for designing novel classes of CA activators by using this compound as lead molecule.
Carbonic anhydrase activators: kinetic and X-ray crystallographic study for the interaction of D- and L-tryptophan with the mammalian isoforms I-XIV.,Temperini C, Innocenti A, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT Bioorg Med Chem. 2008 Sep 15;16(18):8373-8. Epub 2008 Aug 26. PMID:18774300
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.