Apo Human carbonic anhydrase II bound with substrate carbon dioxide
[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.    
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. 
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The visualization at near atomic resolution of transient substrates in the active site of enzymes is fundamental to fully understanding their mechanism of action. Here we show the application of using CO(2)-pressurized, cryo-cooled crystals to capture the first step of CO(2) hydration catalyzed by the zinc-metalloenzyme human carbonic anhydrase II, the binding of substrate CO(2), for both the holo and the apo (without zinc) enzyme to 1.1A resolution. Until now, the feasibility of such a study was thought to be technically too challenging because of the low solubility of CO(2) and the fast turnover to bicarbonate by the enzyme (Liang, J. Y., and Lipscomb, W. N. (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 87, 3675-3679). These structures provide insight into the long hypothesized binding of CO(2) in a hydrophobic pocket at the active site and demonstrate that the zinc does not play a critical role in the binding or orientation of CO(2). This method may also have a much broader implication for the study of other enzymes for which CO(2) is a substrate or product and for the capturing of transient substrates and revealing hydrophobic pockets in proteins.
Entrapment of carbon dioxide in the active site of carbonic anhydrase II.,Domsic JF, Avvaru BS, Kim CU, Gruner SM, Agbandje-McKenna M, Silverman DN, McKenna R J Biol Chem. 2008 Nov 7;283(45):30766-71. Epub 2008 Sep 2. PMID:18768466
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.