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|3d93, resolution 1.10Å ()|
|Gene:||HCA2 (Homo sapiens)|
Apo Human carbonic anhydrase II bound with substrate carbon dioxide
The visualization at near atomic resolution of transient substrates in the active site of enzymes is fundamental to fully understanding their mechanism of action. Here we show the application of using CO(2)-pressurized, cryo-cooled crystals to capture the first step of CO(2) hydration catalyzed by the zinc-metalloenzyme human carbonic anhydrase II, the binding of substrate CO(2), for both the holo and the apo (without zinc) enzyme to 1.1A resolution. Until now, the feasibility of such a study was thought to be technically too challenging because of the low solubility of CO(2) and the fast turnover to bicarbonate by the enzyme (Liang, J. Y., and Lipscomb, W. N. (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 87, 3675-3679). These structures provide insight into the long hypothesized binding of CO(2) in a hydrophobic pocket at the active site and demonstrate that the zinc does not play a critical role in the binding or orientation of CO(2). This method may also have a much broader implication for the study of other enzymes for which CO(2) is a substrate or product and for the capturing of transient substrates and revealing hydrophobic pockets in proteins.
Entrapment of carbon dioxide in the active site of carbonic anhydrase II., Domsic JF, Avvaru BS, Kim CU, Gruner SM, Agbandje-McKenna M, Silverman DN, McKenna R, J Biol Chem. 2008 Nov 7;283(45):30766-71. Epub 2008 Sep 2. PMID:18768466
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.    
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. 
About this Structure
- Domsic JF, Avvaru BS, Kim CU, Gruner SM, Agbandje-McKenna M, Silverman DN, McKenna R. Entrapment of carbon dioxide in the active site of carbonic anhydrase II. J Biol Chem. 2008 Nov 7;283(45):30766-71. Epub 2008 Sep 2. PMID:18768466 doi:10.1074/jbc.M805353200
- ↑ Venta PJ, Welty RJ, Johnson TM, Sly WS, Tashian RE. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome in a Belgian family is caused by a point mutation at an invariant histidine residue (107 His----Tyr): complete structure of the normal human CA II gene. Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Nov;49(5):1082-90. PMID:1928091
- ↑ Roth DE, Venta PJ, Tashian RE, Sly WS. Molecular basis of human carbonic anhydrase II deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Mar 1;89(5):1804-8. PMID:1542674
- ↑ Soda H, Yukizane S, Yoshida I, Koga Y, Aramaki S, Kato H. A point mutation in exon 3 (His 107-->Tyr) in two unrelated Japanese patients with carbonic anhydrase II deficiency with central nervous system involvement. Hum Genet. 1996 Apr;97(4):435-7. PMID:8834238
- ↑ Hu PY, Lim EJ, Ciccolella J, Strisciuglio P, Sly WS. Seven novel mutations in carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome identified by SSCP and direct sequencing analysis. Hum Mutat. 1997;9(5):383-7. PMID:9143915 doi:<383::AID-HUMU1>3.0.CO;2-5 10.1002/(SICI)1098-1004(1997)9:5<383::AID-HUMU1>3.0.CO;2-5
- ↑ Shah GN, Bonapace G, Hu PY, Strisciuglio P, Sly WS. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and brain calcification): novel mutations in CA2 identified by direct sequencing expand the opportunity for genotype-phenotype correlation. Hum Mutat. 2004 Sep;24(3):272. PMID:15300855 doi:10.1002/humu.9266
- ↑ Briganti F, Mangani S, Scozzafava A, Vernaglione G, Supuran CT. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes cyanamide hydration to urea: is it mimicking the physiological reaction? J Biol Inorg Chem. 1999 Oct;4(5):528-36. PMID:10550681
- ↑ Kim CY, Whittington DA, Chang JS, Liao J, May JA, Christianson DW. Structural aspects of isozyme selectivity in the binding of inhibitors to carbonic anhydrases II and IV. J Med Chem. 2002 Feb 14;45(4):888-93. PMID:11831900