Crystal Structure of E18N DJ-1
[PARK7_HUMAN] Defects in PARK7 are the cause of Parkinson disease type 7 (PARK7) [MIM:606324]. A neurodegenerative disorder characterized by resting tremor, postural tremor, bradykinesia, muscular rigidity, anxiety and psychotic episodes. PARK7 has onset before 40 years, slow progression and initial good response to levodopa. Some patients may show traits reminiscent of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-parkinsonism/dementia complex (Guam disease).       
[PARK7_HUMAN] Protects cells against oxidative stress and cell death. Plays a role in regulating expression or stability of the mitochondrial uncoupling proteins SLC25A14 and SLC25A27 in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta and attenuates the oxidative stress induced by calcium entry into the neurons via L-type channels during pacemaking. Eliminates hydrogen peroxide and protects cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death. May act as an atypical peroxiredoxin-like peroxidase that scavenges hydrogen peroxide. Following removal of a C-terminal peptide, displays protease activity and enhanced cytoprotective action against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Stabilizes NFE2L2 by preventing its association with KEAP1 and its subsequent ubiquitination. Binds to OTUD7B and inhibits its deubiquitinating activity. Enhances RELA nuclear translocation. Binds to a number of mRNAs containing multiple copies of GG or CC motifs and partially inhibits their translation but dissociates following oxidative stress. Required for correct mitochondrial morphology and function and for autophagy of dysfunctional mitochondria. Regulates astrocyte inflammatory responses. Acts as a positive regulator of androgen receptor-dependent transcription. Prevents aggregation of SNCA. Plays a role in fertilization. Has no proteolytic activity. Has cell-growth promoting activity and transforming activity. May function as a redox-sensitive chaperone.             
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Human DJ-1, a disease-associated protein that protects cells from oxidative stress, contains an oxidation-sensitive cysteine (C106) that is essential for its cytoprotective activity. The origin of C106 reactivity is obscure, due in part to the absence of an experimentally determined p K a value for this residue. We have used atomic-resolution X-ray crystallography and UV spectroscopy to show that C106 has a depressed p K a of 5.4 +/- 0.1 and that the C106 thiolate accepts a hydrogen bond from a protonated glutamic acid side chain (E18). X-ray crystal structures and cysteine p K a analysis of several site-directed substitutions at residue 18 demonstrate that the protonated carboxylic acid side chain of E18 is required for the maximal stabilization of the C106 thiolate. A nearby arginine residue (R48) participates in a guanidinium stacking interaction with R28 from the other monomer in the DJ-1 dimer and elevates the p K a of C106 by binding an anion that electrostatically suppresses thiol ionization. Our results show that the ionizable residues (E18, R48, and R28) surrounding C106 affect its p K a in a way that is contrary to expectations based on the typical ionization behavior of glutamic acid and arginine. Lastly, a search of the Protein Data Bank (PDB) produces several candidate hydrogen-bonded aspartic/glutamic acid-cysteine interactions, which we propose are particularly common in the DJ-1 superfamily.
Cysteine pKa depression by a protonated glutamic acid in human DJ-1.,Witt AC, Lakshminarasimhan M, Remington BC, Hasim S, Pozharski E, Wilson MA Biochemistry. 2008 Jul 15;47(28):7430-40. Epub 2008 Jun 21. PMID:18570440
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.