[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye.
An improved steroid sulfatase inhibitor was prepared by replacing the N-propyl group of the second-generation steroid-like inhibitor (2) with a N-3,3,3-trifluoropropyl group to give (10). This compound is 5-fold more potent in vitro, completely inhibits rat liver steroid sulfatase activity after a single oral dose of 0.5 mg/kg, and exhibits a significantly longer duration of inhibition over (2). These biological properties are attributed to the increased lipophilicity and metabolic stability of (10) rendered by its trifluoropropyl group and also the potential H-bonding between its fluorine atom(s) and Arg(98) in the active site of human steroid sulfatase. Like other sulfamates, (10) is expected to be sequestered, and transported by, erythrocytes in vivo because it inhibits human carbonic anhydrase II (hCAII) potently (IC(50), 3 nmol/L). A congener (4), which possesses a N-(pyridin-3-ylmethyl) substituent, is even more active (IC(50), 0.1 nmol/L). To rationalize this, the hCAII-(4) adduct, obtained by cocrystallization, reveals not only the sulfamate group and the backbone of (4) interacting with the catalytic site and the associated hydrophobic pocket, respectively, but also the potential H-bonding between the N-(pyridin-3-ylmethyl) group and Nepsilon(2) of Gln(136). Like (2), both (10) and its phenolic precursor (9) are non-estrogenic using a uterine weight gain assay. In summary, a highly potent, long-acting, and nonestrogenic steroid sulfatase inhibitor was designed with hCAII inhibitory properties that should positively influence in vivo behavior. Compound (10) and other related inhibitors of this structural class further expand the armory of steroid sulfatase inhibitors against hormone-dependent breast cancer.
Anticancer steroid sulfatase inhibitors: synthesis of a potent fluorinated second-generation agent, in vitro and in vivo activities, molecular modeling, and protein crystallography.,Woo LW, Fischer DS, Sharland CM, Trusselle M, Foster PA, Chander SK, Di Fiore A, Supuran CT, De Simone G, Purohit A, Reed MJ, Potter BV Mol Cancer Ther. 2008 Aug;7(8):2435-44. PMID:18723489
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
↑ Venta PJ, Welty RJ, Johnson TM, Sly WS, Tashian RE. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome in a Belgian family is caused by a point mutation at an invariant histidine residue (107 His----Tyr): complete structure of the normal human CA II gene. Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Nov;49(5):1082-90. PMID:1928091
↑ Roth DE, Venta PJ, Tashian RE, Sly WS. Molecular basis of human carbonic anhydrase II deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Mar 1;89(5):1804-8. PMID:1542674
↑ Soda H, Yukizane S, Yoshida I, Koga Y, Aramaki S, Kato H. A point mutation in exon 3 (His 107-->Tyr) in two unrelated Japanese patients with carbonic anhydrase II deficiency with central nervous system involvement. Hum Genet. 1996 Apr;97(4):435-7. PMID:8834238
↑ Shah GN, Bonapace G, Hu PY, Strisciuglio P, Sly WS. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and brain calcification): novel mutations in CA2 identified by direct sequencing expand the opportunity for genotype-phenotype correlation. Hum Mutat. 2004 Sep;24(3):272. PMID:15300855 doi:10.1002/humu.9266
↑ Briganti F, Mangani S, Scozzafava A, Vernaglione G, Supuran CT. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes cyanamide hydration to urea: is it mimicking the physiological reaction? J Biol Inorg Chem. 1999 Oct;4(5):528-36. PMID:10550681
↑ Kim CY, Whittington DA, Chang JS, Liao J, May JA, Christianson DW. Structural aspects of isozyme selectivity in the binding of inhibitors to carbonic anhydrases II and IV. J Med Chem. 2002 Feb 14;45(4):888-93. PMID:11831900
↑ Woo LW, Fischer DS, Sharland CM, Trusselle M, Foster PA, Chander SK, Di Fiore A, Supuran CT, De Simone G, Purohit A, Reed MJ, Potter BV. Anticancer steroid sulfatase inhibitors: synthesis of a potent fluorinated second-generation agent, in vitro and in vivo activities, molecular modeling, and protein crystallography. Mol Cancer Ther. 2008 Aug;7(8):2435-44. PMID:18723489 doi:7/8/2435