[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye.
2-N,N-Dimethylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-5-methanesulfonamide was tested for its interaction with the 12 catalytically active mammalian carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 18.104.22.168) isozymes, CA I-XIV. The compound is a potent inhibitor of CA IV, VII, IX, XII, and XIII (K(I)s of 0.61-39 nM), a medium potency inhibitor of CA II and VA (K(I)s of 121-438 nM), and a weak inhibitor against the other isoforms (CA III, VB, VI, and XIV), making it a very interesting candidate for situations in which a strong/selective inhibition of certain isozymes is needed. The crystal structure of the hCA II adduct of this sulfonamide revealed interesting interactions between the inhibitor and the enzyme which are quite different from those observed in the adducts of CA II with the structurally related aliphatic derivatives zonisamide, 2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazolyl-5-difluoromethanesulfonamide, and 2-dimethylamino-5-[sulfonamido-(aminomethyl)]-1,3,4-thiadiazole reported earlier.
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Interaction of 2-N,N-dimethylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-5-methanesulfonamide with 12 mammalian isoforms: kinetic and X-ray crystallographic studies.,Temperini C, Cecchi A, Boyle NA, Scozzafava A, Cabeza JE, Wentworth P Jr, Blackburn GM, Supuran CT Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Feb 1;18(3):999-1005. Epub 2007 Dec 15. PMID:18162396
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
↑ Venta PJ, Welty RJ, Johnson TM, Sly WS, Tashian RE. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome in a Belgian family is caused by a point mutation at an invariant histidine residue (107 His----Tyr): complete structure of the normal human CA II gene. Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Nov;49(5):1082-90. PMID:1928091
↑ Roth DE, Venta PJ, Tashian RE, Sly WS. Molecular basis of human carbonic anhydrase II deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Mar 1;89(5):1804-8. PMID:1542674
↑ Soda H, Yukizane S, Yoshida I, Koga Y, Aramaki S, Kato H. A point mutation in exon 3 (His 107-->Tyr) in two unrelated Japanese patients with carbonic anhydrase II deficiency with central nervous system involvement. Hum Genet. 1996 Apr;97(4):435-7. PMID:8834238
↑ Shah GN, Bonapace G, Hu PY, Strisciuglio P, Sly WS. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and brain calcification): novel mutations in CA2 identified by direct sequencing expand the opportunity for genotype-phenotype correlation. Hum Mutat. 2004 Sep;24(3):272. PMID:15300855 doi:10.1002/humu.9266
↑ Briganti F, Mangani S, Scozzafava A, Vernaglione G, Supuran CT. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes cyanamide hydration to urea: is it mimicking the physiological reaction? J Biol Inorg Chem. 1999 Oct;4(5):528-36. PMID:10550681
↑ Kim CY, Whittington DA, Chang JS, Liao J, May JA, Christianson DW. Structural aspects of isozyme selectivity in the binding of inhibitors to carbonic anhydrases II and IV. J Med Chem. 2002 Feb 14;45(4):888-93. PMID:11831900
↑ Temperini C, Cecchi A, Boyle NA, Scozzafava A, Cabeza JE, Wentworth P Jr, Blackburn GM, Supuran CT. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Interaction of 2-N,N-dimethylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-5-methanesulfonamide with 12 mammalian isoforms: kinetic and X-ray crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Feb 1;18(3):999-1005. Epub 2007 Dec 15. PMID:18162396 doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2007.12.022