[ACE_HUMAN] Genetic variations in ACE may be a cause of susceptibility to ischemic stroke (ISCHSTR) [MIM:601367]; also known as cerebrovascular accident or cerebral infarction. A stroke is an acute neurologic event leading to death of neural tissue of the brain and resulting in loss of motor, sensory and/or cognitive function. Ischemic strokes, resulting from vascular occlusion, is considered to be a highly complex disease consisting of a group of heterogeneous disorders with multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. Defects in ACE are a cause of renal tubular dysgenesis (RTD) [MIM:267430]. RTD is an autosomal recessive severe disorder of renal tubular development characterized by persistent fetal anuria and perinatal death, probably due to pulmonary hypoplasia from early-onset oligohydramnios (the Potter phenotype). Genetic variations in ACE are associated with susceptibility to microvascular complications of diabetes type 3 (MVCD3) [MIM:612624]. These are pathological conditions that develop in numerous tissues and organs as a consequence of diabetes mellitus. They include diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy leading to end-stage renal disease, and diabetic neuropathy. Diabetic retinopathy remains the major cause of new-onset blindness among diabetic adults. It is characterized by vascular permeability and increased tissue ischemia and angiogenesis. Defects in ACE are a cause of susceptibility to intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) [MIM:614519]. A pathological condition characterized by bleeding into one or both cerebral hemispheres including the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortex. It is often associated with hypertension and craniocerebral trauma. Intracerebral bleeding is a common cause of stroke.
[ACE_HUMAN] Converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II by release of the terminal His-Leu, this results in an increase of the vasoconstrictor activity of angiotensin. Also able to inactivate bradykinin, a potent vasodilator. Has also a glycosidase activity which releases GPI-anchored proteins from the membrane by cleaving the mannose linkage in the GPI moiety.
Human angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) has two homologous domains, the N and C domains, with differing substrate preferences. X-ray crystal structures of the C and N domains complexed with various inhibitors have allowed identification of active site residues that might be important for the molecular basis of this selectivity. However, it is unclear to what extent the different residues contribute to substrate domain selectivity. Here, cocrystal structures of human testis ACE, equivalent to the C domain, have been determined with two novel C domain-selective ketomethylene inhibitors, (5 S)-5-[( N-benzoyl)amino]-4-oxo-6-phenylhexanoyl- l-tryptophan (kAW) and (5 S)-5-[( N-benzoyl)amino]-4-oxo-6-phenylhexanoyl- l-phenylalanine (kAF). The ketone groups of both inhibitors bind to the zinc ion as a hydrated geminal diolate, demonstrating the ability of the active site to catalyze the formation of the transition state. Moreover, active site residues involved in inhibitor binding have been mutated to their N domain counterparts, and the effect of the mutations on inhibitor binding has been determined. The C domain selectivity of these inhibitors was found to result from interactions between bulky hydrophobic side chain moieties and C domain-specific residues F391, V518, E376, and V380 (numbering of testis ACE). Mutation of these residues decreased the affinity for the inhibitors 4-20-fold. T282, V379, E403, D453, and S516 did not contribute individually to C domain-selective inhibitor binding. Further domain-selective inhibitor design should focus on increasing both the affinity and selectivity of the side chain moieties.
Probing the basis of domain-dependent inhibition using novel ketone inhibitors of Angiotensin-converting enzyme.,Watermeyer JM, Kroger WL, O'Neill HG, Sewell BT, Sturrock ED Biochemistry. 2008 Jun 3;47(22):5942-50. Epub 2008 May 6. PMID:18457420
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
↑ Casas JP, Hingorani AD, Bautista LE, Sharma P. Meta-analysis of genetic studies in ischemic stroke: thirty-two genes involving approximately 18,000 cases and 58,000 controls. Arch Neurol. 2004 Nov;61(11):1652-61. PMID:15534175 doi:61/11/1652
↑ Gribouval O, Gonzales M, Neuhaus T, Aziza J, Bieth E, Laurent N, Bouton JM, Feuillet F, Makni S, Ben Amar H, Laube G, Delezoide AL, Bouvier R, Dijoud F, Ollagnon-Roman E, Roume J, Joubert M, Antignac C, Gubler MC. Mutations in genes in the renin-angiotensin system are associated with autosomal recessive renal tubular dysgenesis. Nat Genet. 2005 Sep;37(9):964-8. Epub 2005 Aug 14. PMID:16116425 doi:ng1623
↑ Slowik A, Turaj W, Dziedzic T, Haefele A, Pera J, Malecki MT, Glodzik-Sobanska L, Szermer P, Figlewicz DA, Szczudlik A. DD genotype of ACE gene is a risk factor for intracerebral hemorrhage. Neurology. 2004 Jul 27;63(2):359-61. PMID:15277638
↑ Watermeyer JM, Kroger WL, O'Neill HG, Sewell BT, Sturrock ED. Probing the basis of domain-dependent inhibition using novel ketone inhibitors of Angiotensin-converting enzyme. Biochemistry. 2008 Jun 3;47(22):5942-50. Epub 2008 May 6. PMID:18457420 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi8002605