[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye.
2-(Hydrazinocarbonyl)-3-phenyl-1H-indole-5-sulfonamide was tested for its interaction with 12 carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 184.108.40.206) isoforms in the search of compounds with good inhibitory activity against isozymes with medicinal chemistry applications, such as CA I, II, VA, VB, VII, IX, and XII among others. This sulfonamide is a potent inhibitor of CA I and II (K(I)s of 7.2-7.5 nM), a medium potency inhibitor of CA VII, IX, XII, and XIV, and a weak inhibitor against the other ubiquitous isoforms, making it thus a very interesting clinical candidate for situations in which a strong inhibition of CA I and II is needed. The crystal structure of the hCA II adduct of this sulfonamide revealed many favorable interactions between the inhibitor and the enzyme which explain its strong low nanomolar affinity for this isoform but may also be exploited for the design of effective inhibitors incorporating bicyclic moieties.
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Interaction of 2-(hydrazinocarbonyl)-3-phenyl-1H-indole-5-sulfonamide with 12 mammalian isoforms: kinetic and X-ray crystallographic studies.,Guzel O, Temperini C, Innocenti A, Scozzafava A, Salman A, Supuran CT Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Jan 1;18(1):152-8. Epub 2007 Nov 4. PMID:18024029
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
↑ Venta PJ, Welty RJ, Johnson TM, Sly WS, Tashian RE. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome in a Belgian family is caused by a point mutation at an invariant histidine residue (107 His----Tyr): complete structure of the normal human CA II gene. Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Nov;49(5):1082-90. PMID:1928091
↑ Roth DE, Venta PJ, Tashian RE, Sly WS. Molecular basis of human carbonic anhydrase II deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Mar 1;89(5):1804-8. PMID:1542674
↑ Soda H, Yukizane S, Yoshida I, Koga Y, Aramaki S, Kato H. A point mutation in exon 3 (His 107-->Tyr) in two unrelated Japanese patients with carbonic anhydrase II deficiency with central nervous system involvement. Hum Genet. 1996 Apr;97(4):435-7. PMID:8834238
↑ Shah GN, Bonapace G, Hu PY, Strisciuglio P, Sly WS. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and brain calcification): novel mutations in CA2 identified by direct sequencing expand the opportunity for genotype-phenotype correlation. Hum Mutat. 2004 Sep;24(3):272. PMID:15300855 doi:10.1002/humu.9266
↑ Briganti F, Mangani S, Scozzafava A, Vernaglione G, Supuran CT. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes cyanamide hydration to urea: is it mimicking the physiological reaction? J Biol Inorg Chem. 1999 Oct;4(5):528-36. PMID:10550681
↑ Kim CY, Whittington DA, Chang JS, Liao J, May JA, Christianson DW. Structural aspects of isozyme selectivity in the binding of inhibitors to carbonic anhydrases II and IV. J Med Chem. 2002 Feb 14;45(4):888-93. PMID:11831900
↑ Guzel O, Temperini C, Innocenti A, Scozzafava A, Salman A, Supuran CT. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Interaction of 2-(hydrazinocarbonyl)-3-phenyl-1H-indole-5-sulfonamide with 12 mammalian isoforms: kinetic and X-ray crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Jan 1;18(1):152-8. Epub 2007 Nov 4. PMID:18024029 doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2007.10.110