Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Interaction of 2-(hydrazinocarbonyl)-3-phenyl-1H-indole-5-sulfonamide with twelve mammalian isoforms: kinetic and X-Ray crystallographic studies
[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.    
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. 
Publication Abstract from PubMed
2-(Hydrazinocarbonyl)-3-phenyl-1H-indole-5-sulfonamide was tested for its interaction with 12 carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 18.104.22.168) isoforms in the search of compounds with good inhibitory activity against isozymes with medicinal chemistry applications, such as CA I, II, VA, VB, VII, IX, and XII among others. This sulfonamide is a potent inhibitor of CA I and II (K(I)s of 7.2-7.5 nM), a medium potency inhibitor of CA VII, IX, XII, and XIV, and a weak inhibitor against the other ubiquitous isoforms, making it thus a very interesting clinical candidate for situations in which a strong inhibition of CA I and II is needed. The crystal structure of the hCA II adduct of this sulfonamide revealed many favorable interactions between the inhibitor and the enzyme which explain its strong low nanomolar affinity for this isoform but may also be exploited for the design of effective inhibitors incorporating bicyclic moieties.
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Interaction of 2-(hydrazinocarbonyl)-3-phenyl-1H-indole-5-sulfonamide with 12 mammalian isoforms: kinetic and X-ray crystallographic studies.,Guzel O, Temperini C, Innocenti A, Scozzafava A, Salman A, Supuran CT Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Jan 1;18(1):152-8. Epub 2007 Nov 4. PMID:18024029
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.