[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye.
Indanesulfonamides are interesting lead compounds for designing selective inhibitors of the different isoforms of the zinc enzyme Carbonic Anhydrase (CA). Herein, we report for the first time the X-ray crystal structure of two such derivatives, namely indane-5-sulfonamide and indane-2-valproylamido-5-sulfonamide, in complex with the physiologically dominant human isoform II. The structural analysis reveals that, although these two inhibitors have quite similar chemical structures, the arrangement of their indane ring within the enzyme active site is significantly diverse. Thus, our findings suggest that the introduction of bulky substituents on the indane-sulfonamide ring may alter the binding mode of this potent class of CA inhibitors, although retaining good inhibitory properties. Accordingly, the introduction of bulky tail moieties on the indane-sulfonamide scaffold may represent a powerful strategy to induce a desired physicochemical property to an aromatic sulfonamide or to obtain inhibitors with diverse inhibition profiles and selectivity for various mammalian CAs.
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: Binding of Indanesulfonamides to the Human Isoform II.,D'Ambrosio K, Masereel B, Thiry A, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT, De Simone G ChemMedChem. 2007 Dec 27;. PMID:18161740
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↑ Roth DE, Venta PJ, Tashian RE, Sly WS. Molecular basis of human carbonic anhydrase II deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Mar 1;89(5):1804-8. PMID:1542674
↑ Soda H, Yukizane S, Yoshida I, Koga Y, Aramaki S, Kato H. A point mutation in exon 3 (His 107-->Tyr) in two unrelated Japanese patients with carbonic anhydrase II deficiency with central nervous system involvement. Hum Genet. 1996 Apr;97(4):435-7. PMID:8834238
↑ Shah GN, Bonapace G, Hu PY, Strisciuglio P, Sly WS. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and brain calcification): novel mutations in CA2 identified by direct sequencing expand the opportunity for genotype-phenotype correlation. Hum Mutat. 2004 Sep;24(3):272. PMID:15300855 doi:10.1002/humu.9266
↑ Briganti F, Mangani S, Scozzafava A, Vernaglione G, Supuran CT. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes cyanamide hydration to urea: is it mimicking the physiological reaction? J Biol Inorg Chem. 1999 Oct;4(5):528-36. PMID:10550681
↑ Kim CY, Whittington DA, Chang JS, Liao J, May JA, Christianson DW. Structural aspects of isozyme selectivity in the binding of inhibitors to carbonic anhydrases II and IV. J Med Chem. 2002 Feb 14;45(4):888-93. PMID:11831900
↑ D'Ambrosio K, Masereel B, Thiry A, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT, De Simone G. Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: Binding of Indanesulfonamides to the Human Isoform II. ChemMedChem. 2007 Dec 27;. PMID:18161740 doi:10.1002/cmdc.200700274