[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye.
Three benzene-1,3-disulfonamide derivatives were investigated for their interaction with 12 mammalian alpha-carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 18.104.22.168), and three bacterial/archaeal CAs belonging to the alpha-, beta-, and gamma-CA class, respectively. X-ray crystal structure of the three inhibitors in complex with the dominant human isozyme CA II revealed a particular binding mode within the cavity. The sulfonamide group in meta-position to the Zn(2+)-coordinated SO(2)NH(2) moiety was oriented toward the hydrophilic side of the active site cleft, establishing hydrogen bonds with His64, Asn67, Gln92, and Thr200. The plane of the phenyl moiety of the inhibitors was rotated by 45 degrees and tilted by 10 degrees with respect to its most recurrent orientation in other CA II-sulfonamide complexes.
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: inhibition of human, bacterial, and archaeal isozymes with benzene-1,3-disulfonamides--solution and crystallographic studies.,Alterio V, De Simone G, Monti SM, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2007 Aug 1;17(15):4201-7. Epub 2007 May 18. PMID:17540563
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
↑ Venta PJ, Welty RJ, Johnson TM, Sly WS, Tashian RE. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome in a Belgian family is caused by a point mutation at an invariant histidine residue (107 His----Tyr): complete structure of the normal human CA II gene. Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Nov;49(5):1082-90. PMID:1928091
↑ Roth DE, Venta PJ, Tashian RE, Sly WS. Molecular basis of human carbonic anhydrase II deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Mar 1;89(5):1804-8. PMID:1542674
↑ Soda H, Yukizane S, Yoshida I, Koga Y, Aramaki S, Kato H. A point mutation in exon 3 (His 107-->Tyr) in two unrelated Japanese patients with carbonic anhydrase II deficiency with central nervous system involvement. Hum Genet. 1996 Apr;97(4):435-7. PMID:8834238
↑ Shah GN, Bonapace G, Hu PY, Strisciuglio P, Sly WS. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and brain calcification): novel mutations in CA2 identified by direct sequencing expand the opportunity for genotype-phenotype correlation. Hum Mutat. 2004 Sep;24(3):272. PMID:15300855 doi:10.1002/humu.9266
↑ Briganti F, Mangani S, Scozzafava A, Vernaglione G, Supuran CT. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes cyanamide hydration to urea: is it mimicking the physiological reaction? J Biol Inorg Chem. 1999 Oct;4(5):528-36. PMID:10550681
↑ Kim CY, Whittington DA, Chang JS, Liao J, May JA, Christianson DW. Structural aspects of isozyme selectivity in the binding of inhibitors to carbonic anhydrases II and IV. J Med Chem. 2002 Feb 14;45(4):888-93. PMID:11831900
↑ Alterio V, De Simone G, Monti SM, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: inhibition of human, bacterial, and archaeal isozymes with benzene-1,3-disulfonamides--solution and crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2007 Aug 1;17(15):4201-7. Epub 2007 May 18. PMID:17540563 doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2007.05.045